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N5 Chemistry > Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glossary Deck (87):
1

Acid

A substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water

2

Addition Polymerisation

The reaction between many small, unsaturated molecules (monomers) to form one large molecule (a polymer) and nothing else

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Alcohol

A compound containing an -OH group

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Alkali

A soluble base that produces hydroxide ions (OH^-) when dissolved in water

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Alkanes

A family of hydrocarbons where all the members are saturated and have the general formula CnH2n

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Alkenes

A family of hydrocarbons where all the members are unsaturated, they contain one carbon-to-carbon double bond and have the general formula CnH2n

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Alpha

A charged particle consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons emitted by some radioisotopes. It is identical to a helium nucleus and is represented as 4/2He

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Atom

The smallest quantity of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction

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Atomic Lattice

A large three-dimensional arrangement of atoms held together by covalent bonds

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Atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

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Base

A substance that will neutralise an acid

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Battery

A series of chemical cells joined together (often the words cell and battery are used interchangeably)

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Beta

Charged particle consisting of a single electron emitted from the nucleus of some radioisotopes

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Biodegradable

Able to ro away by natural biological processes

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Burette

A graduated piece of apparatus used to measure accurately the volume of liquid or solution dispensed during an experiment

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Calorimeter

Equipment used to measure the energy released in a chemical reaction

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Carboxylic Acid

An acidic compound that contains the carboxyl group

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Catalyst

A substance that will speed up a chemical reaction but is not used up during the process

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Cell

In a chemical cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy

20

Ceramic

A compound of a metal and non-metal that has gained certain properties by being heated and then cooled

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Compound

A substance made up of two or more elements chemically joined

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Concentration

A measure of how much solute is dissolved in a solvent, measured in Mol/L

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Condensation Polymerisation

A reaction in which many small monometer molecules join to form one large polymer molecule with water or some other small molecule, formed at the same time

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Condensation Reaction

One in which two or more molecules join to produce a single larger molecule with water or another small molecules produced at the same time

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Covalent Bond

A shared pair of electrons between two non-metal atoms

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Covalent Network

A giant network of non-metal atoms held together by covalent bonds

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Cycloalkanes

A family of hydrocarbons where all the members are saturated and have the general formula CnH2n

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Dilution

Addition of more solvent to a solution to decrease its concentration

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Dissociation

A process in which compounds separate into oppositely charged ions

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Electrochemical Series (ECS)

A list of metals (and hydrogen) in order of their ability to lose electrons and form ion in solution

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Electrolyte

A compound that conducts owing to the movement of ions either when dissolved in water or melted

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Electron

A negatively charged particle with a relative mass of zero, which orbits the nucleus of an atom

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Element

A substance that consists of atoms with the same number of protons in their nuclei

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Endothermic Reaction

A reaction in which energy is taken in from the surroundings

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Enzyme

Biological catalysts

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Ester

A fruity smelling compound used in fragrances flavourings and as a solvent. It is formed by reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid

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Exothermic Reaction

A reaction in which energy is realised to the surroundings

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Feedstock

A substance obtained from a raw material which is then used to manufacture another substance

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Gamma

High frequency, and high energy, electromagnetic radiation emitted by radioactive substances

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Group Ion

A charged particle that contains more than one type of atom eg. permanganate

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Half-Life

The time in which the activity of a radioisotope decays by half, or in which half of its atoms disintegrate

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Homologous Series

A family of compounds with the same general formula and similar chemical properties that show a gradual change in physical properties. The alkanes are an example of a homologous series

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Hydration

An addition reaction where water is added across a double bond

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Hydrogenation

An addition reaction where hydrogen is added across a double bond

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Indicator

A substance whose colour changes depending on pH

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Ion

A charged particle

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Ion-electron Equation

Equation that shows either the loss of electrons (oxidation) or the gain of electrons (reduction)

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Ionic Bond

The electrostatic force of attraction between positive ions and negative ions

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Ionic Lattice

A large arrangement of ions held together by ionic bonds

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Isomers

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae

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Isotopes

Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers

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Macroscopic

Large enough to be seen or examined by the unaided eye

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Malleable

A physical property of metals. A malleable material can be shaped by hammering or rolling

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Mass Number

Equal to the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom or ion

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Metallic Bonding

Each atom in the metal element loses its outer electrons to form positive ions. These ions pack together in a regular crystalline arrangement and the free (delocalised) electrons move freely through the structure. The electrostatic attraction of the positive ions for the delocalised electrons binds the ions together and is called metallic bonding

56

Mole

The relative atomic mass of an element expressed in grams (twice the RAM for diatomic elements), the relative formula mass of a compound expressed in grams

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Molecule

Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

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Molten

Describes a liquid formed by melting a solid

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Monomers

Relatively small molecules that can join together to produce a very large molecule (a polymer) by a process called polymerisation

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Neutralisation

A reaction in which the pH moves towards 7

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Neutron

A neutral particle with a relative mass of 1 found in the nucleus of an atom

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Nuclear Fission

Splitting nuclei by bombarding them with slow-moving neutrons

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Nuclear Fusion

Light nuclei combining to form heavier nuclei and producing a lot of energy

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Nucleus

The positively charged centre of an atom which contains the neutron and protons

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Oxidation Reaction

One in which electrons are lost or oxygen is gained

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pH

A measure of how acidic or alkaline a substance is

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Phenyl Group

A group of carbon and hydrogen atoms formula C6H5

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Pickling

A method used to keep food from spoiling. It involves storing the food in vinegar, which contains ethnoic acid, to stop bacteria and fungi growing

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Piezoelectric

Crystals that acquire an electrical charge when twisted, distorted, compressed or put under any mechanical stress are said to be Piezoelectric

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Pipette

A piece of apparatus used to measure a specific volume of liquid or solution

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Polymer

A very large molecule formed by the joining together of many smaller molecules (monomers)

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Proton

A positively charged particle with a relative mass of 1 found in the nucleus of an atom

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Radioisotopes

Atoms that emit radiation because their nuclei are unstable. Alpha, Beta, Gamma may be emitted

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Rate

A measure of how quickly a chemical reaction is prgressing

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Reducing Agent

A substance that gives electrons away to another substance or that removes oxygen from it

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Reduction

A process in which electrons are gained or oxygen is lost

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Relative Atomic Mass (RAM)

The average mass of the isotopes of an element

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Relative Formula Mass (RFM)

The sum of the relative atomic masses of all the elements in a compound

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Saturated

A compound that cannot have any more atoms added to it. All the bonds are single

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Spectator ion

An ion that is present as both a reactant and a product in a chemical equation. Spectator ions take no part in the reaction

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Systematic Name

The chemical name for a compound, obtained by following a set of prescribed rules

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Tetrahedral

A tetrahedral molecule has a central atom bonded to four other atoms that are positioned at the corners of a regular tetrahedron

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Thermoplastic

A plastic that softens on heating and can be reshaped

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Titration

An experiment that will accurately measure the volume of liquid or solution required for a particular reaction

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Unsaturated

A compound that can have more atoms added to it. It will contain at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond

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Valency

The number of bonds that an atom or ion can form

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Variable

A factor that can be changed in a chemical reaction that will affect the rate