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Food and Nutrition > Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glossary Deck (130):
1

Saturated fats

Contain saturated fatty acids that are usually from animal sources that can be harmful to your health

2

High-risk foods

A ready to eat food that, if not stored correctly, could grow harmful microorganisms

3

Biological value

A measure of the amount of essential amino acids a protein based food contains

4

Dry frying

pan cooking food without any oil or water - sometimes dry roasting

5

Proving

The last rising of the read dough in its final shape before its baked. This is when the yeast reacts before it is killed by the heat.

6

Osteoporosis

A bone disease where bones weaken and become brittle. Triggered by lack of Vitamin D and Calcium (can occur during menopause)

7

Carbon footprint

A measure of the impact something has on the environment, based on the harmful greenhouse gases produced

8

Ramadan

A month in the Muslim year in which most Muslims are expected to fast from dawn until dusk

9

Coagulation

When denatured proteins join together, changing the appearance and texture of food e.g when an egg white turns solid

10

LACTO-vegetarian

Someone who doesn't eat any meat, fish or eggs but DOES consume dairy

11

Preservative

Something that is added to food to slow down the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms so that food lasts longer

12

Calorie

A measure of the amount of energy in food

13

Riboflavin

Vitamin B2

14

Cuisine

A style of cooking representative of a certain country or region

15

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamins that are not stored by the body and are required daily as they are used by the water in our bodies and excreted

16

Sustainable environment

An environment where the demands placed upon the environment can be met without reducing its ability to allow all people to live well, now and in the future

17

Emulsion

A mixture of oily and watery liquids e.g. mayonnaise

18

Ambient food

A food that can be safely stored at room temperature

19

Food miles

The distance a food product travels from where it is produced or grown to where its sold

20

Protein completentation

Combining two LBV proteins foods to give enough all the essential amino acids needed - i.e hummus and pitta bread, baked beans and wholemeal bread

21

Marinate

To soak something in a mixture of things such as oil, wine, vinegar and herbs before cooking to give it more flavour

22

Glycaemic Index

(GI) A number used to indicate the effect a food has on blood sugar levels - often related to diabetic topics

23

Dietary reference values

Estimate of the amount of nutrients people of age groups or health need in their diet

24

Reduction

The process of simmering a liquid over heat until it thickens. It is also the name of the concentrated liquid that forms during this process

25

Gelatinisation

When starch particles swell and burst, releasing amylase to thicken a liquid - i.e soups

26

Radiation

When heat rays directly heat and cook food without contact.

27

Alternative protein

A form of protein other than protein from meat which is suitable for vegetarians e.g tofu or beans

28

Fat- soluble vitamins

Vitamins A,D,E and K found in fatty foods that the body can store in fat tissue for future use

29

Spina Bifida

Caused by not enough folic acid in the diet during pregnancy. A defect in the backbone that can occur in the unborn baby

30

Genetically modified food (GM)

Food that has had its genes altered to give it useful characteristics (e.g. GM tomatoes that have a longer shelf life)

31

Micro-filtration

A process where milk passes through a fine membrane to separate the milk from souring bacteria

32

Danger zone

The range of temperature (5C-63C) in which bacteria multiply very quickly. food left in this state too long are unsafe - particularly high risk foods

33

Use-by date

A date mark on the packaging on food that is a safety warning when the food is likely to become unsafe to eat

34

Cross- contamination

transferring potentially harmful bacteria (or other microorganisms) from one thing to another e.g from raw food to ready to eat foods via work surfaces, equipment or hands.

35

Raising agent

An ingredient or process that incorporate a gas into a mixture to lighten it and make them rise. This is done mechanically, chemically or biologically.

36

Proteolytic enzymes

Enzymes that break down the muscle fibres in meat making it much more tender

37

Yeast

A tiny single celled fungus (microorganism) used in bread making and produces carbon dioxide during fermentation

38

Obesity

A condition where the body has accumulated too much fat

39

Sterilisation

A heat treatment where raw milk is passed through a steam chamber at 110C for 10-30 minutes killing off all present bacteria

40

Blended sauce

A sauce made from a liquid and a paste of cornflour and water/ milk

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Secondary food processing

Changing primary processed foods into other food products (e.g. flour into bread)

42

P.A.L

Physical activity level. A measure of how active you are or how much exercise you get

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Starchy carbohydrates

Carbohydrates such as pasta, rice , bread, potatoes

44

Braising

Slow-cooking food in a covered pot that also contains liquid, herb and vegetables

45

Convection

The transfer of heat energy through gases or liquids by circulating currents

46

Gluten

A protein found in wheat flours that makes dough's elastic and stretchy

47

Antioxidants

A substance that protects our bodies from free radicals (chemicals that cause cancer). (Vitamins A,C and E)

48

Fortification

When extra nutrients are added to a food e.g in breakfast cereals

49

Water intoxication

Over-consumption of water

50

Allergy

An immune system reaction/ response to a certain substance (an allergen) e.g in fish, nuts, eggs

51

Rickets

A condition found in children where a lack of Vitamin D and Calcium in the diet causes the bones to soften

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Nutritional analysis

Working out the nutritional content of a food or recipe

53

Pesticide

A substance used to kill pests such as insects, weeds and fungi. This can be added during GM.

54

Food poverty

Where a person is unable to afford or access sufficient, nutritious food

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Vitamins

Organic compounds that are needed by the body in small quantities to keep us alive and healthy

56

BMR

Basal metabolic rate The minimum amount of energy needed to keep you alive each day

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Halal

Slaughtered or prepared meat using a method that follows Islamic dietary laws

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Scurvy

Disease caused by lack of Vitamin C

59

Emulsifier

Something that's added to food to hold together the ingredients that wouldn't usually stay together i.e oil and water

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Primary food processing

Refers to the process of changing raw food materials or into food that can be eaten immediately or processed further into other food products

61

Heat transference

When heat energy moves from one place to another by convection, conduction or radiation

62

Enzymes

Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions

63

Unsaturated fats

Group of fats that come mainly from vegetable sources and are usually liquid at room temperature I.e olive oil

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Fertilisers

Organic matter or chemicals that make soil fertile by supplying with it with nutrients

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Intensive farming

A farming method that produces highs yields. Production is often large scale

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Vegans

Eat no animal products - only plant foods

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Garnish

A small addition to a dish that adds extra colour or flavour i.e coriander to curry

68

Umami

Provides food with a meaty or savoury flavour

69

Blanching

A cooking process that involves plunging a food into boiling water before cooling them in ice cold water ( often used before freezing)

70

Soluble fibre

A dietary fibre that helps reduce cholesterol

71

Organic farming

A more natural method of farming (e.g. growing crops) without artificial pesticides and fertilisers

72

Plasticity

Property of fat. Allows us to spread/ manipulate them when heated

73

Bacteria

Single celled microorganisms often found in food. There are three types - Pathogenic, food- decay and helpful bacteria

74

Eatwell guide

Government healthy eating guidelines in the form of a pie chart showing how much or little of each food group your diet should contain

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Rationed

Refers to the controlled distribution of scarce resources (food)

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Poaching

Cooking food in a pan of liquid below boiling point e.g. poaching an egg

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Thiamin

Vitamin B1

78

Cardiovascular disease

Any disease related to the heart or blood vessels e.g. coronary heart disease (caused by a build up of fatty deposits in arteries) and strokes

79

Julienne strips

Small, thin strips of vegetables

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Macro-nutrient

A nutrient needed by our body in LARGE quantities (i.e fats, carbohydrates and proteins)

81

‘Best before’ date

A date mark on the packaging of lower-risk food (e.g fried pasta) that tells you when the food is expected to deteriorate in quality

82

Triglyceride

Chemical name for a fat molecule

83

Shortening

-A fat coats the starch/ flour particles preventing absorption of water, resulting in a crumbling mixture. -The name of a fat with 100% fat content i.e lard

84

Mould

A microorganism that can spoil food such as bread, fruit and cheese

85

Aeration

When air is added to a mixture to help make it lighter e.g making cakes

86

Amylose

causes sauces to thicken, turn cloudy, when cooked and get even thicker as they cool. used in the process of gelatinisation

87

Stabiliser

Something that is added to food to stop mixed ingredients from separating

88

UHT

Ultra heat treatment/ ultra high temperature processing. Where milk is heated to around 135C for 1-4 seconds and packed into sterile containers

89

Amylopectin

Produce a clear gel when it thickens and has the asme thickness hot or cold

90

Mineral

A chemical element that our bodies need in small amounts (i.e Calcium, iron, Magnesium, potassium etc)

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Pathogenic

Able to produce disease e.g. some bacteria are pathogenic

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Gelation

The process in which foods (e.g. Custard) by reducing temperature from a heated state

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Factory-farmed

Produced by an intensive farming technique where reared animals have little room to move (battery)

94

Addictive

Something (a chemical) that’s added to a food product to improve its properties

95

Diabetes

A disorder where blood glucose levels stay too high because the pancreas either cant produce enough insulin or the body resists it.

96

Omega 3 and Omega 6

Groups of essential fatty acids that our bodies cannot be made by the body, therefore must be included in our diet

97

Kosher

Prepared food that follows the requirements of Jewish dietary laws

98

Conduction

The transfer of heat energy through solid by the vibration of particles

99

Anaemia

A condition where you have a reduced number of red blood cells from lack of iron.

100

Lecithin

A natural emulsifier found in egg yolks and soya beans

101

Shelf - life

The length of time a food can last without spoiling or losing its quality

102

Climate change

A gradual change in climate patterns e.g due to global warming

103

Roux

A sauce base made from plain flour, milk and butter

104

Denaturation

When the chemical bonds holding proteins together break down, causing the protein to unravel.

105

Amino acids

‘Building blocks’ of the body that make up proteins. Our bodies can make non-essential amino acids, but we have to get essential amino acids from foods

106

Caramelisation

The browning of sugar and the change in its flavour when its heated above a certain temperature

107

Protein alternatives

Products that have been developed for use in food preparation as an alternative to animal protein i.e tofu

108

Food security

Having access at all times to enough safe, nutritious food for an active and healthy life

109

Lacto-OVO vegetarian

Someone who doesn't eat any meat or fish but does consume milk,eggs and other animal (ovo-ovaries - eggs)

110

Lactose intolerence

A digestive problem where the body can't digest lactose ( milk sugars)

111

Syneresis

Usually refers to eggs. If over-cooked, the protein shrink as they coagulate and separate from the watery liquid

112

Free- range

Produced by a farming technique where reared animals have more space to move and live naturally

113

Infused oil

An oil that has absorbed the flavour of herbs left to soak in it

114

Jus

A thin sauce made from juices from cooked meat

115

Pasteurisation

A process of heat treating food to destroy pathogenic bacteria. E.g. milk is pasteurised by heating above 72C for 15 seconds.

116

Coeliac disease

Where the digestive system is sensitive to gluten and can’t digest it

117

Micro-nutrient

A nutrient needed by our bodies in relatively small amounts (i.e minerals and vitamins)

118

Stroke

When the blood supply to the brain is cut off

119

Basting

Putting the fat that has melted out of the food back on top of the food while cooking

120

Salmonella

A type of food-poisoning bacteria sometimes found on eggs and raw chicken

121

Retinol

Vitamin A from animal sources

122

Microorganism

A tiny living thing that includes bacteria, moulds and yeasts

123

Fairtrade Foundation

A charity that partners with food suppliers to try and improve their working conditions and income.

124

Cholesterol

A fatty substance that is essential for cell membranes. Too much cholesterol in the body can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

125

Flavour enhancers

Additives e.g. monosodium glutamate (MSG) that boost the existing flavour of a food

126

Al dente

'Firm to the bite', a description of the texture of correctly cooked pasta

127

Dextrinisation

When starch molecules break down into dextrins after being exposed to dry heat

128

Aerobic

Oxygenated

129

Intolerance

An inability to eat a type of food without negative effects on the body

130

Viscosity

Thickness of a liquid