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Food and Nutrition > Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glossary Deck (130):
1

Addictive

Something (a chemical) that’s added to a food product to improve its properties

2

Aeration

When air is added to a mixture to help make it lighter e.g making cakes

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Allergy

An immune system reaction/ response to a certain substance (an allergen) e.g in fish, nuts, eggs

4

Alternative protein

A form of protein other than protein from meat which is suitable for vegetarians e.g tofu or beans

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Ambient food

A food that can be safely stored at room temperature

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Amino acids

‘Building blocks’ of the body that make up proteins. Our bodies can make non-essential amino acids, but we have to get essential amino acids from foods

7

Anaemia

A condition where you have a reduced number of red blood cells from lack of iron.

8

Antioxidants

A substance that protects our bodies from free radicals (chemicals that cause cancer).
(Vitamins A,C and E)

9

BMR

Basal metabolic rate
The minimum amount of energy needed to keep you alive each day

10

Basting

Putting the fat that has melted out of the food back on top of the food while cooking

11

‘Best before’ date

A date mark on the packaging of lower-risk food (e.g fried pasta) that tells you when the food is expected to deteriorate in quality

12

Biological value

A measure of the amount of essential amino acids a protein based food contains

13

Blanching

A cooking process that involves plunging a food into boiling water before cooling them in ice cold water (
often used before freezing)

14

Blended sauce

A sauce made from a liquid and a paste of cornflour and water/ milk

15

Braising

Slow-cooking food in a covered pot that also contains liquid, herb and vegetables

16

Calorie

A measure of the amount of energy in food

17

Caramelisation

The browning of sugar and the change in its flavour when its heated above a certain temperature

18

Carbon footprint

A measure of the impact something has on the environment, based on the harmful greenhouse gases produced

19

Cardiovascular disease

Any disease related to the heart or blood vessels e.g. coronary heart disease (caused by a build up of fatty deposits in arteries) and strokes

20

Cholesterol

A fatty substance that is essential for cell membranes. Too much cholesterol in the body can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

21

Climate change

A gradual change in climate patterns e.g due to global warming

22

Coagulation

When denatured proteins join together, changing the appearance and texture of food e.g when an egg white turns solid

23

Coeliac disease

Where the digestive system is sensitive to gluten and can’t digest it

24

Conduction

The transfer of heat energy through solid by the vibration of particles

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Convection

The transfer of heat energy through gases or liquids by circulating currents

26

Cross- contamination

transferring potentially harmful bacteria (or other microorganisms) from one thing to another e.g from raw food to ready to eat foods via work surfaces, equipment or hands.

27

Cuisine

A style of cooking representative of a certain country or region

28

Danger zone

The range of temperature (5C-63C) in which bacteria multiply very quickly. food left in this state too long are unsafe - particularly high risk foods

29

Denaturation

When the chemical bonds holding proteins together break down, causing the protein to unravel.

30

Dextrinisation

When starch molecules break down into dextrins after being exposed to dry heat

31

Diabetes

A disorder where blood glucose levels stay too high because the pancreas either cant produce enough insulin or the body resists it.

32

Dietary reference values

Estimate of the amount of nutrients people of age groups or health need in their diet

33

Dry frying

pan cooking food without any oil or water - sometimes dry roasting

34

Eatwell guide

Government healthy eating guidelines in the form of a pie chart showing how much or little of each food group your diet should contain

35

Emulsifier

Something that's added to food to hold together the ingredients that wouldn't usually stay together i.e oil and water

36

Emulsion

A mixture of oily and watery liquids e.g. mayonnaise

37

Enzymes

Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions

38

Factory-farmed

Produced by an intensive farming technique where reared animals have little room to move (battery)

39

Fairtrade Foundation

A charity that partners with food suppliers to try and improve their working conditions and income.

40

Fat- soluble vitamins

Vitamins A,D,E and K found in fatty foods that the body can store in fat tissue for future use

41

Fertilisers

Organic matter or chemicals that make soil fertile by supplying with it with nutrients

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Flavour enhancers

Additives e.g. monosodium glutamate (MSG) that boost the existing flavour of a food

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Food miles

The distance a food product travels from where it is produced or grown to where its sold

44

Food poverty

Where a person is unable to afford or access sufficient, nutritious food

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Food security

Having access at all times to enough safe, nutritious food for an active and healthy life

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Fortification

When extra nutrients are added to a food e.g in breakfast cereals

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Free- range

Produced by a farming technique where reared animals have more space to move and live naturally

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Garnish

A small addition to a dish that adds extra colour or flavour i.e coriander to curry

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Gelatinisation

When starch particles swell and burst, releasing amylase to thicken a liquid - i.e soups

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Gelation

The process in which foods (e.g. Custard) by reducing temperature from a heated state

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Genetically modified food (GM)

Food that has had its genes altered to give it useful characteristics (e.g. GM tomatoes that have a longer shelf life)

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Gluten

A protein found in wheat flours that makes dough's elastic and stretchy

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Glycaemic Index

(GI) A number used to indicate the effect a food has on blood sugar levels - often related to diabetic topics

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Halal

Slaughtered or prepared meat using a method that follows Islamic dietary laws

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Heat transference

When heat energy moves from one place to another by convection, conduction or radiation

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High-risk foods

A ready to eat food that, if not stored correctly, could grow harmful microorganisms

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Infused oil

An oil that has absorbed the flavour of herbs left to soak in it

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Intensive farming

A farming method that produces highs yields. Production is often large scale

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Intolerance

An inability to eat a type of food without negative effects on the body

60

Julienne strips

Small, thin strips of vegetables

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Jus

A thin sauce made from juices from cooked meat

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Kosher

Prepared food that follows the requirements of Jewish dietary laws

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LACTO-vegetarian

Someone who doesn't eat any meat, fish or eggs but DOES consume dairy

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Lacto-OVO vegetarian

Someone who doesn't eat any meat or fish but does consume milk,eggs and other animal (ovo-ovaries - eggs)

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Lactose intolerence

A digestive problem where the body can't digest lactose ( milk sugars)

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Lecithin

A natural emulsifier found in egg yolks and soya beans

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Macro-nutrient

A nutrient needed by our body in LARGE quantities (i.e fats, carbohydrates and proteins)

68

Marinate

To soak something in a mixture of things such as oil, wine, vinegar and herbs before cooking to give it more flavour

69

Micro-filtration

A process where milk passes through a fine membrane to separate the milk from souring bacteria

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Micro-nutrient

A nutrient needed by our bodies in relatively small amounts (i.e minerals and vitamins)

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Microorganism

A tiny living thing that includes bacteria, moulds and yeasts

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Mineral

A chemical element that our bodies need in small amounts (i.e Calcium, iron, Magnesium, potassium etc)

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Mould

A microorganism that can spoil food such as bread, fruit and cheese

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Nutritional analysis

Working out the nutritional content of a food or recipe

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Obesity

A condition where the body has accumulated too much fat

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Omega 3 and Omega 6

Groups of essential fatty acids that our bodies cannot be made by the body, therefore must be included in our diet

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Organic farming

A more natural method of farming (e.g. growing crops) without artificial pesticides and fertilisers

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Osteoporosis

A bone disease where bones weaken and become brittle. Triggered by lack of Vitamin D and Calcium (can occur during menopause)

79

Pasteurisation

A process of heat treating food to destroy pathogenic bacteria. E.g. milk is pasteurised by heating above 72C for 15 seconds.

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Pathogenic

Able to produce disease e.g. some bacteria are pathogenic

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Bacteria

Single celled microorganisms often found in food. There are three types - Pathogenic, food- decay and helpful bacteria

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Pesticide

A substance used to kill pests such as insects, weeds and fungi. This can be added during GM.

83

P.A.L

Physical activity level. A measure of how active you are or how much exercise you get

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Plasticity

Property of fat. Allows us to spread/ manipulate them when heated

85

Poaching

Cooking food in a pan of liquid below boiling point e.g. poaching an egg

86

Preservative

Something that is added to food to slow down the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms so that food lasts longer

87

Primary food processing

Refers to the process of changing raw food materials or into food that can be eaten immediately or processed further into other food products

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Protein alternatives

Products that have been developed for use in food preparation as an alternative to animal protein i.e tofu

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Protein completentation

Combining two LBV proteins foods to give enough all the essential amino acids needed - i.e hummus and pitta bread, baked beans and wholemeal bread

90

Proteolytic enzymes

Enzymes that break down the muscle fibres in meat making it much more tender

91

Proving

The last rising of the read dough in its final shape before its baked. This is when the yeast reacts before it is killed by the heat.

92

Radiation

When heat rays directly heat and cook food without contact.

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Raising agent

An ingredient or process that incorporate a gas into a mixture to lighten it and make them rise. This is done mechanically, chemically or biologically.

94

Rationed

Refers to the controlled distribution of scarce resources (food)

95

Ramadan

A month in the Muslim year in which most Muslims are expected to fast from dawn until dusk

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Reduction

The process of simmering a liquid over heat until it thickens. It is also the name of the concentrated liquid that forms during this process

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Retinol

Vitamin A from animal sources

98

Riboflavin

Vitamin B2

99

Rickets

A condition found in children where a lack of Vitamin D and Calcium in the diet causes the bones to soften

100

Roux

A sauce base made from plain flour, milk and butter

101

Salmonella

A type of food-poisoning bacteria sometimes found on eggs and raw chicken

102

Saturated fats

Contain saturated fatty acids that are usually from animal sources that can be harmful to your health

103

Secondary food processing

Changing primary processed foods into other food products (e.g. flour into bread)

104

Scurvy

Disease caused by lack of Vitamin C

105

Shelf - life

The length of time a food can last without spoiling or losing its quality

106

Shortening

-A fat coats the starch/ flour particles preventing absorption of water, resulting in a crumbling mixture.
-The name of a fat with 100% fat content i.e lard

107

Stabiliser

Something that is added to food to stop mixed ingredients from separating

108

Soluble fibre

A dietary fibre that helps reduce cholesterol

109

Spina Bifida

Caused by not enough folic acid in the diet during pregnancy. A defect in the backbone that can occur in the unborn baby

110

Sterilisation

A heat treatment where raw milk is passed through a steam chamber at 110C for 10-30 minutes killing off all present bacteria

111

Starchy carbohydrates

Carbohydrates such as pasta, rice , bread, potatoes

112

Stroke

When the blood supply to the brain is cut off

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Sustainable environment

An environment where the demands placed upon the environment can be met without reducing its ability to allow all people to live well, now and in the future

114

Syneresis

Usually refers to eggs. If over-cooked, the protein shrink as they coagulate and separate from the watery liquid

115

UHT

Ultra heat treatment/ ultra high temperature processing. Where milk is heated to around 135C for 1-4 seconds and packed into sterile containers

116

Unsaturated fats

Group of fats that come mainly from vegetable sources and are usually liquid at room temperature I.e olive oil

117

Thiamin

Vitamin B1

118

Triglyceride

Chemical name for a fat molecule

119

Umami

Provides food with a meaty or savoury flavour

120

Use-by date

A date mark on the packaging on food that is a safety warning when the food is likely to become unsafe to eat

121

Vegans

Eat no animal products - only plant foods

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Viscosity

Thickness of a liquid

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Vitamins

Organic compounds that are needed by the body in small quantities to keep us alive and healthy

124

Water intoxication

Over-consumption of water

125

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamins that are not stored by the body and are required daily as they are used by the water in our bodies and excreted

126

Yeast

A tiny single celled fungus (microorganism) used in bread making and produces carbon dioxide during fermentation

127

Aerobic

Oxygenated

128

Al dente

'Firm to the bite', a description of the texture of correctly cooked pasta

129

Amylopectin

Produce a clear gel when it thickens and has the asme thickness hot or cold

130

Amylose

causes sauces to thicken, turn cloudy, when cooked and get even thicker as they cool. used in the process of gelatinisation