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Flashcards in Glossary Deck (43)
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1

‘Tropical’

is a widely-used term referring to particular conditions
conditions may have changed over time

2

‘Tropics’

bounded by 23o27’ North and 23o25’ South

3

Gigantothermy =

= bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature than smaller animals by virtue of their smaller surface area to volume ratio. A bigger animal has proportionately less of its body close to the outside environment than a smaller animal of otherwise similar shape, and so it gains heat from, or loses heat to, the environment much more slowly

4

Allopatry =

is a term used to describe populations or species that occupy mutually exclusive (nonoverlapping) geographic areas

5

biogeography =

= is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time

6

Vicariance =

the geographical separation of a population, typically by a physical barrier such as a mountain range or river, resulting in a pair of closely related species.

7

Endemism =

is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type

8

Sympatric speciation =

= is the process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region

9

Natural selection =

those variations in the genotype that increase an organism’s chances of survival and procreation are preserved and multiplied from generation to generation at the expense of less advantageous ones.

10

Physiological =

its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living system

11

Morphological =

= a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features

12

Refugia =

is a location which supports an isolated or relict population of a once more widespread species.

13

Species richness =

is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region
is simply a count of species, and it does not take into account the abundances of the species or their relative abundance distributions.

14

Species Diversity =

is defined as the number of species and abundance of each species that live in a particular location

15

alpha richness =

number of species present

16

beta richness/diversity =

rate at which species change between habitats

17

gamma diversity =

= biogeographical diversity, total species diversity in a broad region

18

Relative humidity =

warm air can hold a lot more water then cold air

19

Fecundity =

= the ability to produce an abundance of offspring

20

Stability time hypothesis =

due to rainforests being relatively stable and are ancient, that it has resulted in speciation to occur at high rates allowing a high species richness

21

Productivity – resources hypothesis =

high diversity in tropics is a direct result in of high plant productivity, supporting more species

22

Interspecific competition hypothesis =

high species diversity has occurred due to high competition among species resulting in over time, niche partitioning, which is when species subdivide the resource, each specialising in a part of the desired resource, thus they a not in competition

23

Predation hypothesis =

= predators exert a major influence on species at lower trophic levels (herbivores)

24

Grasslands =

grass and herbaceous plants

25

Savannas =

grasslands with scattered trees

26

Shrublands =

= woody or herbaceous shrubs

27

riparian areas =

= the interface between land and a river or stream

28

Grazing =

just eats grass

29

Browsing =

= feeding on leaves, twigs or other high-growing vegetation

30

ecological guild =

= guild is a group of species that share a range of resources

31

niche partitioning =

= which is when species subdivide the resource, each specialising in a part of the desired resource, thus they a not in competition

32

Parasitism =

=  is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

33

Mutualism =

= Both gain

34

Commensalism =

One gains, the other has not effect

35

Predation =

= One gains, the other suffers

36

Parasitism =

= One gains, the other suffers

37

Competition =

= both suffer

38

ecological specialisation =

= refers to how many species limit themselves to small diet- or habitat-niches, as a result of evolutionary trade-offs

39

trophic dynamics =

= the movement of carbon, nutrients, and energy among organisms in an ecosystem

40

Müllerian mimicry =

= be poisonous and look like something else poisonous

41

Batesian mimicry =

be tasty but resemble something poisonous

42

Mimicry =

the close external resemblance of an animal or plant (or part of one) to another animal, plant, or inanimate object.

43

keystone species =

= exert strong influence on food web