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Flashcards in Glossary - D-I Deck (64):

Gantt Chart

A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, schedule activities or work breakdown structure components are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars.



A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., "hammer"), but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).


Hammock Activity

See summary activity.


Historical Information

Documents and data on prior projects including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects.


Human Resource Plan

A document describing how roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staffing management will be addressed and structured for the project. It is contained in or is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan.


Identify Risks

The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.


Identify Stakeholders

The process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, and impact on project success.


Imposed Date

A fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a "start no earlier than" and "finish no later than" date.


Influence Diagram

A graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes.


Initiating Processes

Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.



Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process.



Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.


Invitation for Bid (IFB)

Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.



A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point or matter that is not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements.


Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

An analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode in every component of a product is analyzed to determine its effect on the reliability of that component and, by itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the required function of the component; or the examination of a product (at the system and/or lower levels) for all ways that a failure may occur. For each potential failure, an estimate is made of its effect on the total system and of its impact. In addition, a review is undertaken of the action planned to minimize the probability of failure and to minimize its effects.


Fast Tracking

A specific project schedule compression technique that changes network logic to overlap phases that would normally be done in sequence, such as the design phase and construction phase, or to perform schedule activities in parallel. See also crashing and schedule compression.


Finish Date

A point in time associated with a schedule activity's completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target, or current.


Finish-to-Finish (FF)

The logical relationship where completion of work of the successor activity cannot finish until the completion of work of the predecessor activity. See also logical relationship.


Finish-to-Start (FS)

The logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor activity depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor activity. See also logical relationship.


Firm-Fixed-Price (FFP) Contract

A type of fixed price contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), regardless of the seller's costs.


Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee (FPIF) Contract

A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.



Also called slack. See total float and free float.



The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.



An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project's future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. The information is based on the project's past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project inthe future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.


Forward Pass

The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. See also schedule network analysis and backward pass.


Free Float

The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately fallowing schedule activities. See also total float.


Functional Manager

Someone with management authority over an organizational unit within a functional organization. The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Sometimes called a line manager.


Functional Organization

A hierarchical organization where each employee has one clear superior, and staff are grouped by areas of specialization and managed by a person with expertise in that area.


Early Finish Date (EF)

In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can finish, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan.


Early Start Date (ES)

In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can start, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan.


Earned Value (EV)

The value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).


Earned Value Management (EVM)

A management methodology for integrating scope, schedule, and resources, and for objectively measuring project performance and progress. Performance is measured by determining the budgeted cost of work performed (i.e., earned value) and comparing it to the actual cost of work performed (i.e., actual cost).


Earned Value Technique (EVT)

A specific technique for measuring the performance of work and used to establish the performance measurement baseline (PM B).



The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. Contrast with duration.


Enterprise Environmental Factors

Any or all external environmental factors and internal organizational environmental factors that surround or influence the project's success. These factors are from any or all of the enterprises involved in the project, and include organizational culture and structure, infrastructure, existing resources, commercial databases, market conditions, and project management software.



A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project costs, resources, effort, and durations and is usually preceded by a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order-of-magnitude, definitive). It should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., ± x percent). See also budget and cost.


Estimate Activity Durations

The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.


Estimate Activity Resources

The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment or supplies required to perform each activity.


Estimate at Completion (EAC)

The expected total cost of a schedule activity, a work breakdown structure component, orthe project when the defined scope of work will be completed. The EAC may be calculated based on performance to date or estimated by the project team based on other factors, in which case it is often referred to as the latest revised estimate. See also earned value teChnique and estimate to complete.


Estimate Costs

The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.


Estimate to Complete (ETC)

The expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, work breakdown structure component, or the project. See also earned value technique and estimate at completion.



Directing, managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work, providing the deliverables, and providing work performance information.


Executing Processes

Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project objectives.


Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis

A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that mayor may not happen. A common use of this technique is within decision tree analysis.


Expert Judgment

Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.


Data Date

The date up to or through which the project's reporting system has provided actual status and accomplishments. Also called as-of date and time-now date.


Decision Tree Analysis

. The decision tree is a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available alternatives. It is used when some future scenarios or outcomes of actions are uncertain. It incorporates probabilities and the costs or rewards of each logical path of events and future decisions, and uses expected monetary value analysis to help the organization identify the relative values of alternate actions. See also expected monetary value analysis.



Technique>. A planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components, until the project work associated with accomplishing the project scope and providing the deliverables is defined in sufficient detail to support executing, monitoring, and controlling the work.



An imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced.


Defect Repair

The formally documented identification of a defect in a project com ponent with a recommendation to either repair the defect or completely replace the component.


Define Activities

. The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.


Define Scope

. The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.



. Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer. See also product and result.


Delphi Technique

. An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. Experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. The responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps anyone person from having undue influence on the outcome.



See logical relationship.


Determine Budget

. The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.


Develop Human Resource Plan

. The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.


Develop Project Charter

. The process of developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholder's needs and expectations.


Develop Project Management Plan

. The process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans.


Develop Project Team

. The process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance.


Develop Schedule

. The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule.


Direct and Manage Project Execution

. The process of performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project's objectives.


Distribute Information

. The process of making relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned.


Duration (DU or DUR)

The total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with effort.