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Flashcards in Glossary for Population Change Deck (49):
1

Exponential growth

Rapid, year on year population growth

2

Crude birth rate

The number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year

3

Crude death rate

The number of deaths per 1,000 of the population per year

4

Natural increase

Occurs when birth rate is higher than the death rate

5

Natural decrease

Occurs when birth rate is lower than the death rate

6

Annual population change

The birth rate minus the death rate plus or minus migration

7

J shape graph

The name given to a graph that shows an exponential rise

8

S shape graph

The name given to a graph that shows exponential growth slowing and levelling off

9

Migration

The movement of people either into or out of an area

10

Emigration

The movement of people out of an area

11

Immigration

The movement of people into an area

12

Demographic transition model

A graph that shows how countries pass through different stages of population growth over time. The DTM shows changes in birth rate, death rate and natural population. There are 5 stages. Progression through each stage is associated with economic development (i.e. Afghanistan in stage 2 is at a lesser stage of development than France in stage 5).

13

Population structure

The composition of a country's population by age and sex

14

Census

Population data including age, sex and occupation

15

Population pyramid

A graph that shows the population structure of a country. Horizontal bars are used to show actual numbers of males and females in each five year age group (0-4, 5-9 etc). They give a good visual impression of a country's population structure as it progresses through the DTM.

16

Apex

The tip of a population pyramid. A high apex shows long life expectancy.

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Base

The bottom of the population pyramid. A wide base shows high birth rate.

18

Funnel shape

The name given to the population structure of a country in stage 1 or 2.

19

Rectangular shape

The name given to the population structure of a country in stage 3 or 4.

20

Oval shape

The name given to the population structure of a country in stage 5

21

Dependents

Those in the population either retired or below the working age. Elderly or young dependents pay no tax and are dependent on the economically active.

22

Economically active

Those in the population who work and pay tax.

23

Dependency ratio

The ratio between the dependents and the economically active.

24

Gender skew

A skew in the population structure towards either males or females (eg Calcutta, India has a male gender skew as many young men move to the city to find work).

25

Urbanisation

Growth in the proportion of a population living in urban areas.

26

Agricultural change

Increased mechanisation of agriculture reduces the need for families to have large numbers of children.

27

Education

Education lowers population growth. With education comes more opportunities and mobility.

28

Emancipation of women

The freedom of women to have a career and make their own life choices.

29

Implications of rapid population growth

Implications are social (resource shortages, rising crime, poor living standards, lack of services, overcrowding); economic (unemployment, burdened economy, large number of dependents); environmental (overgrazing, shortages of clean water, deforestation, soil erosion, land shortages, traffic congestion, pollution); political (wars, tensions, unstable governments).

30

Sustainable population change

When population growth is at or very close to replacement level.

31

Replacement level

When birth rate is at a level that replaces the current population, leading to no real increase or decrease. This is about 2.1 babies per woman.

32

Population policy/anti-natal policy

A strategy used by a government to reduce rapid population growth (One Child Policy in China, or Kerala's alternative population policy in India).

33

Ageing dependent population

A country with a high dependency ratio (eg France) which has a high number of elderly dependents and declining birth rate. This is stage 5 of the demographic transition model and an oval shaped pyramid. Large pressures are placed on the economically active to provide for the rest of the population.

34

Pro-natal policy

A pro-birth policy adopted by a country in stage 5 of demographic transition model (eg France) in order to increase a declining birth rate. Incentives are offered to young couples (like 3 years maternity leave) to encourage them to have more children.

35

Incentive

A benefit offered to people in order to persuade them to do something.

36

EU

European Union

37

Internal migration

Migration within a country (eg within the UK).

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International migration

Migration between countries and across borders.

39

Push factor

The factors people dislike about being where they live (eg poverty, land shortages, poor services, remoteness).

40

Pull factor

The factors that attract people to move (eg better paid jobs, reliable services, schools, hospitals, infrastructure, bright light syndrome).

41

Brain drain

When young, educated people emigrate out of an area.

42

Bright light syndrome

The unreal expectations some migrants place on urban living - they expect glitz and glamour - when in reality what they find is often very different.

43

Voluntary migration

When someone makes the decision to move.

44

Forced migration

When people have no other choice but to migrate (becoming refugees).

45

Economic migration

Migrants seeking a better standard of living and the hope of a higher income.

46

Refugee

A forced migrant who is displaced, often by war, famine or drought.

47

Asylum seekers

Refugees who lodge a claim with another country's government in order to find safety within its borders.

48

Country of origin

The country which migrants have left.

49

Destination (host) country

The country that migrants move to and decide to live in.