Term 2 - Population change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Term 2 - Population change Deck (34):

Whats the birth rate?

Tells us how many babies are born per year per 1000.


Whats death rate?

Tells us how many people die per year per 1000.


What lowers birth rate?

Desire for economic security. Full time job and pursuit of career. Access to family planning and contraception. Better healthcare.


What lowers death rate?

Access to health care. Access to clean water. Improved living conditions. Agricultural production and secure food supply.


Whats natural change?

The difference between birth and death rate. If birth rate is higher than death rate then there will be natural increase.


Whats fertility rate?

The numbers of live births per 1000 women of reproductive age (15 - 45) per year.


Whats infant mortality rate?

The average number of children per 1000 born who die in their first year of life.


Whats longevity?

The property of having a long life, indicated by a high life expectancy.


Whats life expectancy?

The average number of years from birth that a person can expect to live.


Whats an economically active population?

The total population between the ages of 15 and 64 in any country.


Whats a dependent population?

People who are under 15 and over 65 years of age, who are dependent on the economically active population.


Whats the replacement rate?

The number of children that need to be born to replace the present population.


What are the major agricultural factors affecting population growth?

Machinery instead of hands which means families are producing more food so are able to feed more children. However that means there are fewer jobs on farms which means families have less kids.


What are the major urbanization factors affecting population growth?

In a city there is less space so more money to buy bigger house. People are more interested in careers. However people are more likely to find someone they want to have kids with.


What are the major educational factors affecting population growth?

People have kids because the educational standards are very high. However want kids to be successful so will have fewer kids to focus on them more. Many with good education will focus on career and put off having children.


What are the major industrial factors affecting population growth?

Factories are becoming more technological so smaller families are more desirable.


What are the major emancipation of women factors affecting population growth?

Equality is increasing so want women working which mean they have less time for child care. Countrys have developed industrial sector so more women needed to work. As the economy develops, opportunities for girls increase.


What is a demographic transition model (DTM)?

Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.


What is exponential growth?

The bigger the population the faster it grows.


On a DTM what does Stage 1 show?

- Disease
- Poor living conditions
- Hard labour
- High infant mortality
- High death and birth rate
- Low total population (high death and birth rate cancel each other out)


On a DTM what does Stage 2 show?

- Slowly declining death rate
- High birth rate
- Natural increase in population begins
- Healthcare improves so death rate falls
- Larger families still wanted as UK is still farming based society
- Britain was stage 2 1500-1800


On a DTM what does Stage 3 show?

- Low death rate
- Slowly declining death rate
- High natural increase in population
- Beginnings of modern healthcare
- Industrial revolution reduces the need for larger families
- Family planning and birth control introduced
- Britain was stage 3 in 1800-1900


On a DTM what does Stage 4 show?

- Low death rate
- Low birth rate
- Population growth levels off
- Equal roles of men and women
- Emancipation of women
- Advanced medicine
- Casual relationships
- Later marriages
- Britain in stage 4 1900-2000


On a DTM what does Stage 5 show?

- Increasing death rate
- Low birth rate
- Fall in total population (natural decrease)
- High elderly populations increases death rate
- Women fully empowered
- Later marriages
- Birth rate falls below placement levels
- Britain due in stage 5 2050


What are population pyramids?

A population pyramid, also called an age pyramid or age picture diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.


What is the top of a population pyramid called?

An apex.


What is the bottom of a population pyramid called?

The base.



What are the environmental problems with rapid urbanisation?

- Intense farming
- Polution
- Drought
- Deforestation
- Desertification
- Over grazing



What are the economic problems with rapid urbanisation?

- Unemployment
- Over crowding
- Strain on services
- Poor housing



How has the policy changed?

- if one partner is an only child they are allowed to have a 2nd child as long as there is a 4 year gap
- some parents don't want a 2nd child



Why has China had to change the One Child Policy?

In 2050 the economically active population will be lower than the dependant population so they need to increase the birth rate now to get the economically active population higher.


What are the issues of an aging population?

- Do not have income to provide for themselves
- They will rely on state pension
- They join state care homes which costs tax payers money
- Elderly dependants are less ICT literable so they are less employable
- Healthcare is essential - stress on NHS


What are the opportunities of an aging population?

- Look after grandchildren - parents can work more - produce more money
- Many do voluntary work
- Younger retired people are wealthy and have lots of leisure time - provides jobs in service sector
- Some elders pay taxes
- Younger retired people contribute to the economy
- History


What are the impacts of refugee movement into the EU?

- Migrate Canary Islands and Malta
- African people believe "fortress Europe" because it has more electricity, better lifestyle, clean water and more jobs
- They work in informal sector because they have no paperwork