Flashcards in Good and Evil Deck (44):
What is the Catholic response to evil?
Free will and original sin
How does the Catholic belief of free will link to the problem of evil?
1. Free will is a gift from God
2. God created humans with ability to choose between good and evil
3. When humans choose wrong it causes suffering
4. Humans are to blame - they abused the gift
How does original sin link to the problem of evil for catholics?
1. Adam and Eve ate forbidden fruit going against God’s wishes
2. First original sin - sometimes known as the fall
3. Natural suffering introduced into perfect world
4. Since then, all humans have tendency to go against God
5. Original sin is a reminder that we all share some responsibility for evil and suffering
What are st Augustine’s three answers to the question of suffering?
1. Says the existence of evil helps people appreciate the good in the world
2. Says that evil is just the absence of good things - called privation
3. Says God allows suffering because he is omnipotent. Allows evil because he is always able to bring a greater good out of suffering
What is the inconsistent triad?
Evil exists - God is omnipotent - God is omnibenevolent
What two categories is evil divided into?
Moral evil and natural evil
What is moral evil?
Suffering which is a result of human action, e.g. theft, burglary, terrorism etc.
What is natural evil?
Suffering not to do with human actions but with the way the world works, e.g. floods, volcanoes, disease etc.
What is the Catholic attitude towards suffering?
Ambivalent (mixed feelings)
Which parts of the Bible do Catholic views about suffering stem from?
1. In the book of Job, God tells Job he doesn’t understand his suffering, therefore we must trust that God knows best
What is nicene creed?
Doctrine of the trinity is set out in the Nicene Creed:
1. God the father created heaven and earth
2. God the son is the saviour of the world
3. God the Holy Spirit is an invisible spiritual power who guides, helps and inspires human beings
Give a quote to support the doctrine of the trinity
“Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the father and of the son and of the Holy Spirit”
What is Augustine’s metaphorical explanation for the trinity?
Used the idea that ‘God is love’
1. Love needs three things: person doing the loving, person being loved and the love itself
2. Trinity of father, son and Holy Spirit are same as trinity of love, lover and beloved
What is the incarnation?
When Jesus became a human being because God became visible ‘in the flesh’
Why is the incarnation important to Christians?
1. It means the God can identify with humans
2. Demonstration of gods immense love - willing to take on human form and sacrifice himself
What is Salvifici doloris?
1. Written by pope JP 2
2. Says that the problem of evil is not easy to understand
3. Christians should offer up their own suffering for the sake of others
4. If Christians can do this, it’s an act of love resembling Jesus’ sacrifice
5. If we try and bear our own suffering patiently, God will be able to use it to bring about the good in others
Give examples of Jesus’ moral behaviour
1. Golden rule (Matthew 7:12)
2. Jesus healed the sick (cleanses a leper)
3. Jesus showed forgiveness to those who crucified him (Luke 23:33-35)
What is natural law?
The idea that there is a discoverable moral law which applies to all humans. It says that all humans have some purposes in common: preserving life, procreation, seeking the truth, living in society and worshipping God
What does the crucifix remind Catholics of?
The incarnation, but also of the suffering of Jesus, which for Catholics is a reminder of God’s love for them
What are the candles called in prayer?
Why are there statues in the Church?
So Catholics have reminders of God and Jesus and these help them to focus their prayer on what really matters
Why would some Christians go against having religious statues?
It goes against the second commandment that forbids the making of any image as an object of worship
What does Michelangelo’s Pietà statue help?
Catholics to represent on the meaning of suffering - it is a statue of Mary holding Jesus (dead)
What images/meanings does Michelangelo’s Pietà have?
1. Mary seems at peace with what has happened to her son
2. Mary’s left hand opened, sign of acceptance for what has happened
3. Mary’s figure larger than Jesus and cradles him - mother figure
4. Wounds of Jesus hardly visible
What reasons are there for going on a pilgrimage?
1. To help strengthen faith
2. To pray for the sick
3. To come closer to God
4. To seek physical, spiritual or emotional healing
What happened/happens in Lourdes?
1. One of the most popular shrines, in South-West France
2. In 1858 Bernadette had visions of Mary
3. Mary told Bernadette to dig for a spring, spring believes to have healing qualities and pilgrims bathe there
What is popular piety?
A form of devotion
What is the rosary?
A series of beads used by Catholics to help them concentrate during prayers
What sequence is the rosary arranged in?
One ‘Our Father’, ten ‘Hail Marys’ and one ‘Glory Be
What is a sequence of beads called in the rosary?
What are the five sorrowful mysteries?
The agony in the garden, the scourging at the pillar, the crowning with thorns, Jesus is made to carry his cross and Jesus is crucified and dies on the cross
What happened in ‘the agony of the garden’?
When Jesus prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane on the night before he died. He prayed to be spared of the suffering to come but in the end accepted God’s will and obedience out of love
What happened in the ‘scourging at the pillar’?
When Pilate had Jesus whipped in an attempt to satisfy those who wanted Jesus crucified, it didn’t do any good and Pilate condemned Jesus to death
What happened at the ‘crowning with thorns’?
When the soldiers mocked Jesus, twisting thorns into a crown because he had been charged with claiming to be the King of the Jews
What happened in ‘Jesus is made to carry his cross’?
When Jesus carried his own cross to Golgotha, the place of his crucifixion
What happened in ‘Jesus is crucified and dies on the cross’?
When Jesus is nailed to the cross and, after six hours, dies on the cross
What is the definition for conscience?
Human reason making moral decisions. The knowledge we have of what is right and wrong and the God-given compulsion within all human beings to do what is right and avoid what is evil
What is the definition for evil?
The absence of good and the impulse to seek our own desires at the expense of the food of others which often results in suffering
What is the definition for free will?
The decision-making part of a person’s mind is called the will. A will is free if a person is able to choose right from wrong without being controlled by other forces
What is the definition for goodness?
The quality of being like God: seeking the well-being of others selflessly
What is the definition for incarnation?
‘Made flesh’ The Christian belief that God became man in the person of a Jesus, fully human and fully divine
What is the definition for natural law?
The moral laws of right and wrong which are universal and not dependant on human laws. The belief in natural law is the belief that the moral law is discoverable by every human being and is the same for all human beings in all places at all times
What is the definition for privation?
The loss or absence of a quality or something that is normally present. Evil is a privation of good