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Flashcards in GOOD LUCK BRO Deck (50)
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1

Institutions

Organizations that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake

informal institutions: unwritten and unofficial rules

2

Politics

Struggle in any group for power that will give one or more people the ability to make decisions for the larger group

3

Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning

Deductive: starts from a hypothesis and then is tested against data
Theory--> Hypothesis --> Observation --> Confirmation

Inductive: works from case studies in order to generate hypotheses
Observation --> Pattern --> Tentative Hypothesis --> Theory

4

Controlling variables

economies, cultures, geography, resources, and political structures

5

Endogeneity

Cause and effect are not often clear, variables may be both cause and effect in relation to each other

6

Selection bias

Focus on effects rather than causes, which can lead to inaccurate conclusions about correlation and causation

7

Science of Comparative Politics

comparative politics: study and comparison of domestic politics across countries

8

Behavioral revolution

movement within political science in the 1950s and 60s to develop general theories about individual political behavior that can be applied across all countries

9

Sovereignty

ability of a state to carry out actions or policies within a territory independently from external actors or internal rivals

10

Regime

fundamental rules and norms of politics, embodying long-term goals regarding individual freedom and collective equality, where power should reside, and the use of that power

11

Government

leadership or elite in charge of running a state

12

State

1: the organization that maintains a monopoly of force over a given territory (Weber)

2: A set of political institutions to generate and execute policy regarding freedom and equality

ensures order within and resistance to threats from outside

13

Degree of institutionalization in order of less to more institutionalized

government, regime, state

14

Development of the State

Tribes, city-states, and empires --> STATES

Nomadic groups becoming sedentary
creation of surplus and specialization
inequality
growth in population
need to resolve dilemmas of freedom vs. equality

need for an organization that makes and enforces rules, a mechanism to solve conflict, and set collective goals

15

War

Dark Ages: hypercompetitive environment, constant warfare and rapid evolution of organization
Small states ruled by warlords

States encouraged economic development to gain revenue and fight rivals
Technological innovation like gunpowder and cartography
Homogenization of people within territories by language, customs, or identity: nations

"War made the state and the state made war." Charles Tilly

16

Coercion

compelling behavior by threatening harm
Individuals band together to protect themselves and create common rules, leadership chosen from among people

Security through cooperation

Democratic rule, people inherently good

17

Consensus

individuals are brought together by a ruler, who imposes authority and monopolizes power

security through domination

Authoritarian rule, people inherently bad

18

Types of legitimacy: traditional vs. charismatic

traditional: accepts aspects of politics because they have been institutionalized over a long period of time (Monarch like Queen Elizabeth II)

charismatic: legitimacy built on the force of ideas embodied by an individual leader (Revolutionary hero like Vladimir Lenin, or personality cult like Hitler)

bonus:
rational-legal: built on rules and procedures and the offices that create and enforce those rules, strongly institutionalized (Elected executive like Barack Obama)

19

Autonomy

ability of state to wield its power independently of the public

20

Capacity

ability of the state to wield power to carry out basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and maintaining the economy

21

National identity

sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations

22

Ethnic identity

specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of people culturally different from others

23

Nationalism

pride in one's people and the belief that they have a unique political destiny

24

Patriotism

pride in one's state, not a regime, "homeland"-ism

25

Clash of Civilizations

conflict stems from clash of 7-8 groups of cultures

26

Ethnic/national conflict

ethnic conflict: between ethnic groups that struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense. each hopes to gain power by increasing control over existing political institutions like the state or government

national conflict: seek to gain or prevent others from gaining sovereignty, clashing over the quest to form an independent state

Violence a common tool in both, to use, bypass or destroy the coercive powers of the state

27

Political attitudes

Description of one's views regarding the speed and methods with which political changes should take place in a given society

28

Reactionary

someone who seeks to restore the institutions of a real or imagined earlier order

29

Liberal

favors a limited state role in society and the economy, places a high priority on individual political and economic freedom

30

Political ideologies

the basic values held by an individual about fundamental goals of politics or the ideal balance of freedom and equality