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Flashcards in GOVERNANCE Deck (84):
1

5 TYPS OF BENEFITS REALIZATION ANALYSIS (for benefits management)

1. STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT - are the program plans still linked to entreprise plans and strategy?

2. VALUE DELIVERY - Is the value still there? or has the window of opportunity been missed? If the benfits have been reduced, will they produce enough value to support continuing with the investment?

3. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - Focussed on ensuring that the needed resources are provided for the components at the right time. If not per the resource plan, then could jeapordize the benefits

4. RISK MANAGEMENT - Risk awareness as it affects the enterprise level being communicated to senior enterprise officers.

5. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS - Tracking and monitoring component progress and interactions as they relate to delivery of benefits.

2

ACCURACY vs PRECISION

Both components of Quality:

ACCURACY - alignment of a value with its target position. Can you hit the target accurately?

PRECISION - Consistency of the output when process run multiple times. Can you consistently hit the target?

3

ACTIVITY

A piece of the program or project that must be completed or performed and typically has an assigned resource, cost amount, and expected duration; sometimes called a ?task?

4

APPROVE COMPONENT INITIATION

The process of performing the PgM activities to initiate a component per the plan:

1. Develop Business Case

2. Ensure ongoing operations that are part of the program are properly funded and aligned wiht the needs

3. Assign PM

4. Assign Operations Mgr for ongoing operations

5. Communicate component info to stakeholders

6. Communicate ongoing operations to stakeholders

7. Update Gov structure if needed for proper gov of comp at Pg Level

8. Assign component Sponsor

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APPROVE COMPONENT TRANSITION

The process of moving the knowledge, accountability, and fulfillment of benefits from the program to operations

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AUDIT GOALS

1. Examine finances 2. Ensure being gmt.. per org processes 3. Ensure deviations from processes have been approved

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AUDIT PLAN

Component of the Pg Mgmt Plan that describes the objectives and timing for audits and is updated with the results of each audit as they become available

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BENCHMARKING

Quality planning tool involving comparing actual program practices to those of other programs to generate ideas for improvement. Also comparison of a current product to present or past industry standards to attain a measurment or baseline

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CHANGE CONTROL BOARD (CCB)

Group formally recognized to approve or reject requested changes by analyzing changes at program level. Consists of reps from areas of company covering projects. If program CCB ID impact to component, send to component CCB for impact analysis.

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CHANGE CONTROL SYSTEM

Used to assess impact and consequences of change requests and document them.

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CHECKLISTS

Tools used to ensure everything to be done in a process gets done. Helps inprove quality and reduce risks.

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COMPONENT TRANSITION DECISION

Determination to chlose components or ransition them to operations which should be recorded on a certificate and stored in program archives; the decisions should be transmitted to stakeholders and component participatns as authorized

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CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

Process used to control product features and details through change control. 3 Main Goals: 1) Develop consistent process to evaluate changes 2) Environment to review and approve appropriate changes to make program better 3) Establish communication standards of changes to appropriate stakeholders

14

CONFORMANCE

creation and delivery of a product that has met the specified requirements and conformance, or functionality, of use

15

CONFORMANCE TO REQUIREMENT

the point where the project and product meet the standards of the written specificiations defined at program or project inception or modified through change control

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CONTROL CHART

A graph of data that shows the measurements of a process over elapsed time

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CONTROL LIMITS

The area of measurement three standard deviations, or sigma, from the mean on a control chart

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COST OF NONCONFORMANCE

cost associated with failure to meet the quality expectations of the program, project, or product

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COST OF QUALITY

The total cost of all efforts to achieve product or service quality. 1) prevention costs 2) appraisal costs 3) failure costs (internal & external)

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COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS (CBA)

A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.

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DEFECT

a problem or error in the creation of the work of the program or project

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DEFECT REPAIR

the process of correcting or improving an error in the creation of the program or project

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DESIG OF EXPERIMENTS

Statistical process to determie the factors that can influence variables associated with process or product

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FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FEMA)

A process that analyzes every failure mode in every pience of a product; the analysis is then reviewed for impact on every aspect of the system

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FEATURES

the characteristics that the user desires to be built into a product

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FITNESS FOR USE

Needs of the customers and stakeholders must be clearly defined before they can be satisfied. Must satisfy the real needs o the customers and stakeholders. Otherwise, it is not usable to them.

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FLOWCHARTING

A decomposition approach to breaking a system or process into block steps that can be repeated by following the diagram

28

FLOWCHARTS

Technique used during Plan Program Quality to map out flow of process or technique. Helps increase stability and repeatability of a process.

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GOLD PLATING

Practice of providing more than what the customer requested

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GOVERNANCE 6 COMMON ROLES

1. Exec Sponsor, 2. Program Board (steering committee), 3. Program Mgr, 4. Project Mgrs, 5. PMO, 6.Project Teams

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GOVERNANCE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

Inward-looking practice of looking for improvement of processes and structure

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GOVERNANCE DECISION REGISTER

A formal documentation of the meeting minutes, action item logs, and other decisions.

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GOVERNANCE OBJECTIVES (6)

1. Common proced across components, 2. Consistent application of procedures, 3. Common approach for Pg assumptions & decisions, 4. Manage Pg Changes, 5. Quant. Measures for proj/prog, 6. Common practice for capturing risks issues benefits, lessons learned

34

GOVERNANCE PLAN PARTS (7)

1. Governance Goals - goal of governance team

2. Governance Structure and Composition - how governance to be implemented overall - roles, gate reviews, etc

3. Governance R&R Definitions - R&R of governance team

4.High Level Plan and Meeting Schedule - what meetings to occur and when

5. Gate Review Requirements - Clear criteria up front of what it would take to pass each gate

6. Component Initiation Criteria - Clear critieria for be ready to submit request for component initiation

7 Periodic Heath Checks - NOT phase gate reviews. These reviews assess performance against plan (weekly meetings to review progress for example)

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GRADE

specifies the characteristics of a product (such as low grade home tools vs high grade professional tools)

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GRADES vs QUALITY

GRADE - specifies the characteristics of a product (such as low grade home tools vs high grade professional tools), QUALITY - specifies how well something works. Low grade may still have high quality.

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HEALTH CHECKS

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INSPECTION

evaluating something created to ensure it meets the desired standards for use and conforms to requirements

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ISHIKAWA DIAGRAMS

Fishbone or Cause and Effect Diagram to identify risks. Diagrams that break down possible areas for failure I a process and allow analysis of impact for the area; sometimes considered an ideal tool for root cause analysis; also known as Fishbone Diagrams

40

ISO 9000

Certification for a company showing certain level of processes documentation and adherance to those processes. Viewed as an indicator of quality.

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ISSUE ESCALATION LEVELS (2)

1. Within program between comp & Pg Mgmt Team, 2. Between Pg Mgmt Team & Org Executive Mgrs or other Stakeholders

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JUST IN TIME (JIT)

Inventory management process to have little or no excess inventory in stock. Must have quality level needed to support having little to no inventory to meet output demands.

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KAIZEN

(Continuous Improvement) Proactive approach to look for improvement opportunities throughout a process.

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MANAGE PROGRAM BENEFITS

The process of regulating the consistent delivery of defined benefits throughout the duration of the program and take corrective actions if deviating. Ensures that there is a dfined set of reports or metrics reported to the PMO, program stakeholders, governance committe, and/or sponsors.

45

MANAGE PROGRAM BENEFITS OUTPUTS (3)

1. BENEFITS REALIZATION REPORT - report created per the metrics and report template defined int he Governance Plan. Actual Benefits achieved are reported. Reported to the Enterprise Executives (Portfolio Board) for review and corrective actions to ensure benefits aligned and maximized OR closed if no longer viable.

2. GOVERNANCE PLAN UPDATES - process improvements to ensure benefits delivery success is increased

3. CHANGE REQUESTS - to address gaps or seize new opportunities.

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MANAGE PROGRAM BENEFITS T/T (2)

1. REVIEWS

2. BENEFITS REALIZATION ANALYSIS

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MEAN

The average value in a measurement of a population

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MONITOR AND CONTROL PROGRAM CHANGES

The process of tracking and regulating governance, specifically ensuring that decisions about proposed changes to the program plan are appropriately regulated

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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

a bell-shaped curve that is in sync with the mean of the population. Project actiity met with typical outcome. Quality in processes supports being able to have predictable, normal distribution (little outlying in output)

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PARAMETRIC ESTIMATING

a technique that utilizes historical or industry data to create estimates based on parameters suc as a per-unit or per-size variable

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PARETO ANALYSIS

Identification of the most frequently occurring problems in a system, program or project

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PARETO CHART

A histogram that allows prioritization of problem areas in a system, program, or projject

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PERFORMANCE

The level of success at which a product performs its intended use

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PG QUALITY MGMT PLAN PARTS (4)

1. Minimum Component quality standards as needed to ensure benefits met

2. Minimum component testing requirements to prove quality

3. Minimum component quality planning control requirements,

4. Any program level quality assurance/control activities required

5. R&R for PG level quality assurance & quality control activities

55

PURPOSE OF PHASE GATE REVIEWS (4)

Carried out at key decision points with pre-defined exit criteria in the Governance Plan. NOTE: IF PROGRAM IS PART OF PORTFOLIO, THEN PHASE GATE REVIEWS ARE DONE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PORTOLO\IO

Serve to:

1. Ensure good practices are being followed

2. Ensure alignment of program and components with strategic goals

3. ensure that expected benefits are inline with the plan

4. Level of risk is still acceptable to the org

56

PLAN & ESTABLISH GOVNERNANCE STRUCTURE INPUTS (4)

1. Strategic Directive - need to understand to align structure correctly with reps that will know the impact of decisions on these directives. Decisions made may affect alignment with strategic directive. Missalignment leads to risk of being cancelled!

2. Benefits Realization Plan - need to understand what benefits delivered, when, and for what purpose to correctly structure reps that will know the impact of falling short and who will be care about monitoring these benfits

3. Pg Mgmt Plan - review Charter for authority levels, reporting requirements, reviwe Stakeholder/Sponsor requirements

4. Org Charts - review orgs structure and authority levels to guide governance structure

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PLAN AND ESTABLISH GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE OUTPUTS (3)

1. Governance Plan

2. Issue Escalation Process

3. Audit Plan

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PLAN AND ESTABLISH PROGRAM GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE

The process of determining governance objectives, framework, roles, and accountability

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PLAN FOR AUDITS

The process of ensuring sufficient preparation for internal and external program audits of documentation, methodology, and finances, as well as compliance with program management processes approved by the organization

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PLAN PROGRAM QUALITY

Process of ID and communicating where the program needs to specify quality standards and oversights to ensure benfits achieved and cross-component application of requirements will be met. Focus on interdependencies or setting common processes & measurements for consistency across projects, not quality which is only within a project.

61

PMO

Org that provides:
- Defines processes
- Managing schedule and budget
- Defined quality standards
- Doc config mgmt.
- Centralized Change/Risk/Issue mgmt.
- Resource Mgmt
- Contracts & Procurement
- Legal support

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POLICIES WHICH PAIR WITH GOVERNANCE PROCESS POLICIES

  • Org Risk processes
  • Org Issue processes

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POPULATION

The entire group of similar criteria; e.g., all Americans or all owners of a particular product

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PREVENTION vs INSPECTION Cost of Quality

PREVENTION - eliminating potential defects from the process. Proactive approach. INSPECTION - fixing errors as they occur. Reactive approach

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PROBABILITIES

Sum of all probabilities must equal 1 (or 100%)

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PROGRAM GOVERNANCE

The process of developing, communicating, implementing, monitoring, and assuring the policies, procedures, organization structures, and practices associated with a given program

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PROGRAM GOVERNANCE PLAN

A plan that describes the governance, goals, structure, roles and responsibilities, and logistics for executing the governance process.

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PROGRAM GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE

basic framework put into place to guaranty that decisions and delivery management concentrate on the attainment of program objectives, address risks effectively, and met the needs of stakeholders

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PROGRAM MGR ESSENTIAL RESPONSIBILITIES

  • ID /M&C interdependencies
  • Mg Escalations/issues of projects which compromise program
  • Track project contributions to program benefits

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PROVIDE GOVERNANCE OVERSIGHT

the process of checking that the most effective practices are applied to the program, that program risks are acceptable to the organization, that program benefits are aligned with the business plan ,that the program is aligned with strategic goals, and that the investment is acceptably rated

71

PROVIDE GOVERNANCE OVERSIGHT INPUTS (6)

1. Governance Plan

2. Performance Reports (Status reports, financial reports, and resource deviation reports)

3. Pg Mgmt Plan

4. Issue Register

5. Risk Register

6. Gate Review Decision Requests

72

PROVIDE GOVERNANCE OVERSIGHT OUTPUT (4)

1. Go/No Go Decisions - Includes decision record and meeting minutes which highlight the risks of proceeding and the level.

2. Governance Plan Updates

3. Governance Decisions Register Updates - documented as meeting minutes,action item logs, or other formal records. If involve a change, then feed into the M/C program changes

4. Program Closure Recommendation - When last component closed, board reviews ovral delivery against benefits realization plan. If ok, recommend closing to the sponsor for final closure decision.

 

73

PURPOSE OF PROGRAM REVIEWS (5)

1. Review Program Benefits for needed corrections

2. Make decisions on Program Change Requests

3. Approve Component Initiations

4. Approve Component Transition request

5. Provide oversight for Issues, Risks, and improvements

74

QUALITY BENEFIT

Less rework means higher productivity, lower costs, and increased stakeholder satisfaction

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QUALITY COST

Expense associated with quality management activities

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QUALITY MGMT PLAN

Quality Baseline ? for use by component team, Lists Policies and Processes to be used, Checklists to ensure compliance, Process Steps, Validate quality processes working, Component Quality metrics, Format of data reported for communication ease, How to deal with changes to quality standards and processes during the program

77

REGULATION

a requirement developed by a government organization

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SIGMA

Standard Deviation levels (1,2,3,6: 68.2X, 95.X, 99.7X, 99.999X). St Dev = (P-O)/6

79

STEERING COMMITTEE or GOVERNANCE BOARD

Group responsible for ensuring program goals are achieved and providing support to address program risks and issues. Have power to make scope, budget, schedule changes.

NOTE: When part of a portfolio roadmap, the phase gate reviews often handled by the Portfolio members.

80

TQM

Total Quality Management (Deming) ? approach to address quality during development rather than just inspected at end to provide earlier feedback and process improvements along the way: Proactive, Utilize leadership and accountability for quality, Measure for constant improvement

81

VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER (VOC)

A planning process that considers what the customer really needs during the creation of technical requirements

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When is Program Governance Structure ESTABLISHED

During the Program Benefits Delivery Phase

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Where is the Program Governance Structure Recommendation found?

During the Program Initiation Phase as part of the Program Charter (both program level and project level). Further details fleshed out in the Governance Plan.

84

ZERO DEFECTS

Do work right initially so rework not needed. Spend the money upfront to save money on defect rework downstream.