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Flashcards in Grech: Extent of Social Change Deck (29)
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What was the demographic change like in England and Wales between 1900-1914?

- The population of the UK expanded from 42 mil in 1901 to 45 mil in 1911, it was rapidly expanding
- in 1911 5-6 million people belonged to the middle and upper classes and earned 2/3rds of the national income, the working class took the rest.
- After 1900 there was a slow rise in prices but not wages. This meant that workers were worse off in 1914 than they had been in 1900. About 14% of the population lived below the poverty line.
- the infant mortality rate fell below 10% for the first time ever in 1916.


How did Wales change demographically from the 1800s to 1914?

- Wales became a prime investment area for coal.
- in 1871 the population of Wales was 1.5mil, this rose to 2.5 mil by 1911.
- Wales experienced rural depopulation, people fled from the countryside to monmouthshire, and glamorgan, these two counties alone had 1.5 mil people by 1911.
- 90% of land in Wales was owned by small scale, backward tenant farmers.
- Wales experienced migration from England, this affected the language and culture.


What were the living conditions in Wales like?

- Wales lagged behind the rest of the world in terms of sub standard working class housing, in urban overcrowding, in its health and hospital services, in the levels of industrial disease among workers, poverty and ill health among the old, and malnutrition among children.
- In 1911, the five major boroughs of South Wales showed a death rate of 380 per children 1000 children born. The average across England and Wales was 17.5.
- However substandard living conditions could also be found in the cities, such as Cardiff and Swansea. Splott and Butetown in Cardiff were as deprived as areas of merthyr, particularly the Irish communities of these areas.


What was Industry like in Britain 1900 - 1914??

- For a few decades British manufactured goods dominated world trade. No other country was able to compete with Britain, and she became known as the workshop of the world. Britains power depended on the success of its industry and commerce (trade).
- Britain's most important industries before 1914 were cotton and wool textiles, coalmining, iron and steel, heavy engineering and shipbuilding - all heavy industry.
- However Britain was not keeping up with the US or Germany because they were slow to adapt to new techniques and technology. the US overtook Britain as the leading coal producer in the world.


Why was Britain's growth slowing down?

- Britain's industrial lead over her competitiors was being reduce; in some industries Britain had lost first place and was making a poor showing in some new industries.
- Investment in more 'backward' countries was resulting in the establishment of industries which would soon challenge Britain's
- There was protest from trade unions in Britain because employers were forced to resist pressure to pay higher wages to workers in order to remain competitive.


Why was Britain lagging behind in the electrical, power and motor car industries?

- Britain was still doing well in heavy industry and saw little reason to change.
- British companies were also smaller than American or German ones and so often could not afford the new, expensive machinery.
- There was a shortage of expertise. Germany produced about 3000 engineering graduates per year whilst it was only a fraction of this in Britain.


What are some key points in Industry to note about Wales?

- Coal production in Uk soared from 16 mil in 1870s, to 56.8 mil by 1913
- Labour force of Welsh mines were 250 k men
- Wales supplied 1/5th of the worlds entire coal production
- by 1912, Welsh tinplate industry hit a peak production of 848,000 tonnes of plate
- 1889, welsh slate peaked with 16,000 men employed


What was the 1913 Senghenyndd mining disaster?

- An explosion at Lancaster Pit caused 439 men to be killed
- The welsh speaking community were devastated by the tragedy as they had lost a generation of workers
- The coal owners had ignored warnings of the dangers in the mine only a short time before


What were the main reforms by the Liberals from 1906 - 1914?

- School meals 1906
- Medical Inspections 1907
- Childrens charter 1908
- Pensions
- unemployed workmens Act 1905
- Labour exchange 1909
- National Insurance Act (1911)


What did the Liberals do for the young? How effective were they?

- School meals 1906, Medical Inspections 1907, Childrens Charter 1908
- By 1914, 14 million meals were provided in total (1906 = 3 million) however less than half of all local authorities provided meals in 1912.
- Detected a great deal of medical problems e.g. 30% of children were found to be 'verminous'
- Although grants were being given to some local authorities by 1912, there was no compulsion to treat the health problems found.


What did the Liberals do for the Old? How effective were they?

- Pensions for the elderly, Charles Booth supporting the idea, NZ, Denmark and Germany had already introduced it.
- Pensions becomes a right, collected at Post Office, and people avoided it being called pauper (poor law)
- Pension wasn't enough
- 1900 the life expectancy of men was 47 and women 55, so only very few were able to live long enough to collect pension.


What did the Liberals do for the Unemployed? Was it effective?

- Unemployed workmens Act 1905, Labour exchanges 1909, National Insurance Act (for sick and disabled, families not eligible to claim) 1911
- NIA; compulsory for all earning under 160 pounds a year
- Did not cover death of insured worker or hospital treatment
- workers families not eligible for treatment.
PART 2 (Workers)
- only covered 2.3 million workers
- only compulsory in certain trades
- 1909 Labour exchanges set up
- 3000 people found work through this every day by 1914.


What are some positive viewpoints of the Liberal Reforms?

- The Liberals tried to tackle the key cause of poverty and provide safeguards against old age, sickness, etc.
- Some historians - C Cross, G williams, EJ Evan argue they were the beginning of the modern welfare state
- By our standards the forms appear limited but they were radical for the time and the government was accepting responsibility for the welfare of its citizens.


What are some negative viewpoints of the Liberal reforms?

- The liberals did nothing to tackle other important social issues, e.g. extending education provision, tackling slum housing or providing free medical treatment
- Some historians, EJ Evans, ME Rose argued the reforms were too limited e.g. only covered certain people, and benefits were only payable for a fixed amount of time.


What were the social consequences of world war one?

- During the war, the working classes experienced full employment, higher wages and greater controls on rents, which left most better off
- stronger notions of class equality emerged and all men over 21 received the vote in 1918
- rises in income tax led to a reduction in living standards for many of the middle class, who felt under threat from labour's egalitarian ideas about redistributing wealth through taxation.


How did beliefs and attitudes change after the war?

- a generation of men (75,000) were killed and over 2 million wounded, 300,000 children lost their fathers
- Although churches inevitably played a greater public role during the war, religious belief, as evidenced in church attendance, began to decline after the war.


How did the war affect women in Britain?

- By 1918 women comprised one third of the total workforce, an increase of approximately 10 per cent of pre war levels, and were employed in a greater range of occupations.
- Pay for women increased from approximately one third of a mans wage, to half
- fashion changes symbolised a new social freedom, with straighter, simpler more utilitarian styles, shorter hair and shorter dresses
- women over 30 married to a householder received the vote through the representation of the people act, 1918.
- the 1919 sex disqualification act opened up jobs in the civil service and jury service to women.
- by 1918, married women over 30 could vote.


What were the economic consequences of war Britain?

- it cost Britain 5 million per day
- trade declined
- prices and inflation rose faster than wages
- the pound was overvalued on the currency markets, making British exports more expensive
- valuable overseas markets were lost.
- by 1914, Britain was over reliant on her traditional industries: coal, iron and steel, textiles and shipbuilding


How were the Liberal Party affected by the first world war?

- catastrophic for the party because it led to huge divides
- Some MPs resigned because they opposed entry into the war
- Some liberals rebelled due to the "war socialism" act which undermined individual liberties
- Asquiths leadership undermined liberal unity, he eventually resigned in 1916.


How were the Conservative Party affected by the first world war?

- The war did much to revive the tories through their:
- willingness to go to war.
- its traditional patriotic, militaristic and imperialist values, which suited the popular mood.
- Asquith's weak wartime leadership, which had enabled the party to get back into government as part of the wartime coalition.


How were Labour party affect by the first world war?

- in 1914 Labour was almost about whether to go to war.
- Wartime made the socialist ideas of state control of supplies, industries and services more accepted
- the status of trade unions increased as their contribution to the war effort was widely praised, as their willingness to avoid industrial conflict
- the experience gained by those Labour MPs in coalition government, notably Arthur Henderson, benefitted the party
- The war also led in 1918 to all men over 21 being given the right to vote in the Representation of the People Act, 1918, which provided more working-class votes for the party.


What were the methods used in suffrage campaigns?
(meetings and conferences)

Meetings and conferences:
- Suffrage supporters raised suffrage issues at conferences, such as those of the trades union congress and meetings organised by the main political parties.
- the WSPU broke new ground by addressing groups of women in the open air, from Trafalgar square to factory gates and village greens
- 1908, Milicent Fawcett becamr the first woman to debate, and to debate on the question of women's suffrage, in the oxford union
- Generally these were legal and well conducted, but in 1905 Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenney were arrested for heckling Winston Churchill at a liberal party election meeting in Manchester.


What were the methods used in suffrage campaigns?
( Marches/ demonstrations)

Marches and demonstrations:
- in 1911, 40,000 demonstrators joined a London based march to celebrate the new king George V.
- 1913, the WSPU turned the funeral of the suffragette Emily Wilding Davison, who herself under the kings horse during the derby, into a political demonstration
- 1910, 300 suffragettes tried to storm the house of commons, in a battle between police, it was known as Black Friday and some of the women were sexually assaulted.


What were the methods of propaganda the suffragettes used in campaigns? (propaganda/civil disobedience/attacks on poverty?)

- WSPU members were excellent saleswomen and sold merchandise
- NUWSS and WSPU endorsed a bocott of the 1911 census, and hundreds of women made arrangements to be where the enumerator could not count them on census night.
- after 1909, the WSPU began to pour acid on golf greens, setting light to the content of pillar boxes and making arson attacks on the homes of prominent politicians
- After 1912, attacks intensified, smashing the windows of the home office, foreign office and a range of government buildings.
- 1913 David Lloyd Georges house in Surrey was partly destroyed by suffragette arson.


What was the general impact of the suffragette campaign?

- Militancy attracted publicity from newspapers, which attracted funds and recruits.
- NUWSS grew from 12,000 in 1909 to 50,000 in 1914.
- militancy convinced those opposed to womens suffrage that women were not to be trusted with the responsibility of the vote.


With its landslide victory in 1906, why didn't the liberals respond to the suffrage campaign?

- Prime minister Herbert Asquith was opposed votes for women
- a series of elections and by elections had eaten away at the liberals majority, they now relied on labour and the irish nationalists, the irish were opposed to women votes, and labour believed male enfranchisement was more of a necessity
- the government had more pressing issues to worry about; industrial unrest, clashes in the house of lords, and political turmoil in ireland.


How ambivalent were the liberal party and government in granting women the right to vote?

- 1906, the government refused to support an amendment to a plural voting bill that would have enfranchised some property owning women.
- 1907; the commons reject a womens suffrage bill
- 1913, government franchise bill introduced universal male suffrage but an amendment to enfranchise women was declared unconstitutional.


Why were women enfranchised in 1918?

- women played an important role
- it was accepted amongst politicians that there was a need to reform the franchise
- The fear that the enfranchisement of women would benefit one political party over another had largely vanished. liberal and labour politicians felt that the social mix in such a large group of women would not lead them necessarily to vote conservative
- in 1915, the liberal government became a coalition government, and so there was a greater likelihood of cross party agreement to any decision to enfranchise women
- the government itself, by 1916/17, contained many more MPs who were sympathetic to the cause. Andrew Bonar Law and Arthur Henderson were promoted to the cabinet, replacing men who were antagonistic. David Lloyd George, a sympathiser, replaced the antagonistic Asquith
- the cessation of WSPU militancy, for the duration of the war, and the universally acknowledged contribution of women to the war effort, allowed many MPs to change their minds.


Briefly highlight the period of industrial in Britain 1900 - 1914.

- 1901, booth and ronwtree change peoples perception of poverty
- Taff vale strike, meant unions had to pay compensation to employers, had direct impact on industrial unrest
- liberals 1906, trade dispute act, unions more confident
- 1909, Osborne judgement, trad unions not allowed to fund labour
- unemployement drops, increase in confidence to strike
- miners strike south wales 1910-1911
- railway workers strike 1911.
- 1913 Senghenydd disaster