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Flashcards in Greco-Roman Gods Deck (110)
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1

What were the Primordial Deities?

original gods from which all other gods and entities descend

  • e.g. Chaos, Ouranos, Nyx, Gaia, Eros
  • they include the protogenoi, the First Born, who descended from Chaos
  • they are often associated with basic concepts, such as love, or with the underworld or the mystery of fertility

2

Who were the Titans?

powerful deities who ascended during the mythical Golden Age

  • e.g. Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, Eos, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus
  • ruled by Kronos and Rhea
  • Kronos was overthrown by his son, Zeus, which led to the rule of the more well-known Olympians
  • fought the Olympians, the younger generation of gods, but were defeated and imprisoned in the depths of the earth (Tartarus)

3

Who were the Olympians?

the Greeks' main deities, who comprise the main gods cast in Homer's epics and later Greek plays

  • e.g. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia (Hestia later gave up her position as an Olympian to Dionysus)
  • lived atop Mt. Olympus
  • twelve of them, though conflicting lists emerge from different historical sources

4

Who were the Chthonic Deities?

gods of the underworld, death, and the bowels of the earth

  • e.g. Hades, Persephone, Tartarus, Charon
  • often appeased by animal sacrifices distinct from the rites of Olympian cults

5
Describe the following place in the context of Greek mythology:

Underworld

realm beneath the earth filled with dead souls

  • includes Tartarus, five rivers, and Cerberus, a three-headed hound
  • Hades' domain

6
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Kronos

god of time

  • Roman name: Saturn
  • leader of the Titans
  • son of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus)
  • overthrew Ouranos and prophesied to be overthrown by his own son, Zeus

7
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Zeus

god of sky/thunder

  • Roman name: Jupiter
  • ruler of all Olympian gods
  • married to Hera
  • brother of Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter

8
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Poseidon

god of the sea and
earthquakes

  • Roman name: Neptune
  • married to Amphitrite
  • brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera, et al.

9
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Hades

god of the underworld

  • Roman name: Pluto
  • brother of Zeus and Poseidon
  • married to Persephone
  • wields the helm of darkness, which grants invisibility

10
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Hera

goddess of women and marriage

  • Roman name: Juno
  • Zeus' wife, mother of the gods
  • jealous and bitter towards Zeus' other lovers
  • despised Heracles (Hercules)

11
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Athena

 

goddess of wisdom,
peace, and strategy

  • Roman name: Minerva
  • wise daughter of Zeus
  • has an owl, helmet, shield, lance
  • born out of Zeus' forehead

12
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Apollo

god of music, light, archery

  • Roman names: Apollo, Phoebus
  • widely worshipped son of Zeus
  • holds a bow and arrow
  • had many male and female lovers

13
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Artemis

goddess of hunting, virginity, and the moon

  • Roman name: Diana
  • twin sister of Apollo; also had a bow and arrow
  • took a vow of chastity
  • known for hunting with hounds, stags, a chariot, and nymphs

14
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Aphrodite

goddess of love and
beauty

  • Roman name: Venus
  • born of Ouranos' (Uranus') severed genitals, rose from the sea foam
  • married to Hephaestus; had affairs with Ares, Adonis, Hermes

15
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Hermes

god of messaging and
travel

  • Roman name: Mercury
  • messenger of the gods
  • wore a winged cap and winged sandals

16
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Ares

god of war

  • Roman name: Mars
  • violent god, wore a shield and helmet
  • son of Zeus and Hera

17
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Dionysus

god of wine

  • Roman name: Bacchus
  • son of Zeus and Semele
  • effeminite god
  • born of Persephone, killed by Hera, reborn through Semele

18
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Helios

sun god

  • Roman name: Sol
  • brother of goddesses Selene (the moon) and Eos (the dawn)
  • rode in a chariot across the sky
  • all-seeing god

19
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Hephaestus

god of blacksmithing

  • Roman name: Vulcan
  • blacksmith of the gods, wields a hammer, anvil, and tongs
  • very ugly
  • married to Aphrodite despite his ugliness
  • forged Helios' chariot and Hermes' sandals and cap

20
Describe the following figure from Greco-Roman mythology:

Hestia

goddess of hearth,
home, family

  • Roman name: Vesta
  • one of the three great goddesses along with Demeter and Hera
  • daughter of Rhea and Kronos

21
Which figures from Greek mythology are described below?

original gods from which all other gods and entities descend

  • e.g. Chaos, Ouranos, Nyx, Gaia, Eros
  • they include the protogenoi, the First Born, who descended from Chaos
  • they are often associated with basic concepts, such as love, or with the underworld or the mystery of fertility

The Primordial Deities

22
Which figures from Greek mythology are described below?

powerful deities who ascended during the mythical Golden Age

  • e.g. Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, Eos, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus
  • ruled by Kronos and Rhea
  • Kronos was overthrown by his son, Zeus, which led to the rule of the more well-known Olympians
  • fought the Olympians, the younger generation of gods, but were defeated and imprisoned in the depths of the earth (Tartarus)

The Titans

23
Which figures from Greek mythology are described below?

the Greeks' main deities, who comprise the main gods cast in Homer's epics and later Greek plays

  • e.g. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia
  • lived atop Mt. Olympus
  • twelve of them, though conflicting lists emerge from different historical sources

The Olympians

24
Which figures from Greek mythology are described below?

gods of the underworld, death, and the bowels of the earth

  • e.g. Hades, Persephone, Tartarus, Charon
  • often appeased by animal sacrifices distinct from the rites of Olympian cults

The Chthonic Deities

25
Which location from Greek mythology is described below?

realm beneath the earth filled with dead souls

  • includes Tartarus, five rivers, and Cerberus, a three-headed hound
  • Hades' domain

Underworld

26
Which figure from Greek mythology is described below?

god of time

  • Roman name: Saturn
  • leader of the Titans
  • son of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus)
  • overthrew Ouranos and was prophesied to be overthrown by his own son, Zeus

Kronos

27
Which figure from Greek mythology is described below?

god of sky/thunder

  • Roman name: Jupiter
  • ruler of all Olympian gods
  • married to Hera
  • brother of Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter

Zeus

28
Which figure from Greek mythology is described below?

god of the sea and earthquakes

  • Roman name: Neptune
  • married to Amphitrite
  • brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera, et al.

Poseidon

29
Which figure from Greek mythology is described below?

god of the underworld

  • Roman name: Pluto
  • brother of Zeus and Poseidon
  • married to Persephone
  • wields the helm of darkness which grants invisibility

Hades

30
Which figure from Greek mythology is described below?

goddess of women and marriage

  • Roman name: Juno
  • Zeus' wife, mother of the gods
  • jealous and bitter towards Zeus' other lovers
  • despised Heracles (Hercules)

Hera