Ground Cover Fire Fighting for Structural Firefighters Flashcards
What is the backbone of the fire suppression effort?
The Terra Torch maybe installed in the back of a pickup truck, trailer, boat or heavy equipment and is effective in?
All fuels especially brush and moist fuels due to its longer residence time.
What kind of tactics should be used when fire is more than 100 feet from power lines?
Indirect attack is generally considered more dangerous than direct attack because?
More fire entrapments and fatalities occur during indirect attacks.
A Type 3 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?
The most common hand cutting tools for wildland firefighting are?
Axes, Pulaskis, Brush Hooks, Sandviks.
FFs will improve their chance of survival if their deployed shelter?
Will not be exposed to direct flame.
If you must leave in a hurry abandon the hose and take only the ____.
On actively burning ground fires where long hose lays are needed at least ____ attack hose must be used to minimize friction loss and deliver maximum volume.
What is the definition of a swamper?
Worker who helps clear away brush, limbs and small trees.
Factors affecting ground cover fuels?
Fuel size (lighter fuels burn faster)
Compactness (tightly compacted fuels burn slower)
Continuity (closely spaced fuels spread faster)
Volume (amount of fuel present)
Fuel moisture content (less moisture ignites more easily)
Can two handcrews work effectively in tandem the same way as two engines?
Although progress may be slower they are no less effective.
When the two layers of the fire shelter are sown together the ____ between them provides additional insulation.
When constructing firelines crew members typically walk and work ___ apart for safety.
Class A fire hydrant cap color?
Hand crews serve as the ____ of ground cover fire forces.
A backpack pump is used as a form of?
Portable fire extinguisher that carries plain water or foam.
What are the three basic types of ground cover fires based on the type and location of the fuel?
Ground fires, surface fires, crown fires.
Regardless of the distance between a fire front and the control line all unburned fuel between these two must be?
Removed. Usually by backfiring or burning out.
What type of attack may be needed to protect structures?
What causes booster lines to be ineffective against medium and high intensity fires?
Relatively high friction loss means they may not be able to flow the required quantity of water.
A Type 4 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?
What are the 3 C’s?
Communication, coordination and cooperation.
What is the outer layer of the fire shelter made of?
Woven silica laminated to aluminum foil.
Stay at least ____ in front and ____ behind heavy equipment.
100 feet and 50 feet.
Structural engines can be very effective on large roadside fires by?
Being the anchor point for progressive hose lays.
When two engines attack in tandem the following occurs?
First engine moves along the fireline at a relatively fast pace knocking down a majority of intensity knowing the second engine will be securing the fireline behind it.
What is the purpose of an anchor point?
To prevent a fire from burning around the end of the control line and outflanking suppression crews.
The NCWG Type 2 & 3 tractor plows are classified as?
Medium capacity tractor plow.
What are the most common inversions in the ground cover fire environment?
Nighttime and subsidence.
Wise water use is critical to?
Fusees are most effective in?
____ take a charged hose line into the cab.
Intense fires burning father than ____ from a structure do not transfer enough radiant heat to ignite the structure.
A water tender used as a refilling point for smaller ground cover apparatus operating remotely from a water supply source also qualifies as?
Nurse tender operations.
What is the range of the Terra Torch?
Approximately 100 feet depending on pump pressure and terrain.
What kind of cutting strokes should you perform with hand tools?
Short, sharp cutting strokes.
A Type 5/Type 7 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?
Small 10gpm pump.
The NWCG Type 1 tractor plow is classified as?
Heavy and largest capacity tractor plow.
How long will a typical fusee burn?
Temperature difference factors?
Wind moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
Definition of aspect?
The compass direction a slope faces.
If an unresolved safety hazard exists or an unsafe act was committed you should also?
Document the turn down by submitting either a SAFENET (ground hazard) or SAFECOM (aviation hazard) form.
What type of hand tools should have smooth, well maintained handles with sharp cutting edges?
Ground cover fire apparatus also have the ability to ____ while the vehicle is moving.
Pump water aka pump and roll.
If possible always try to leave one engine to patrol the burned area and assist with?
Mop up and security.
A Type 1 crew is expected to complete ____ of line in brush per hour.
6 chains or 396 feet.
How are the parts of a ground cover fire named?
For their unique characteristics and locations.
Definition of burning out?
Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel located between the edge of the fire and the control line.
All wheel/4 wheel drive vehicles have superior climbing abilities with their high center of gravity which makes them more susceptible to?
Ground fires typically burn faster on?
A Type 3 wildland engine has how much 1” hose line?
What does SEAT stand for?
Single engine air tanker.
Definition of flame length?
Distance between the flame tip and the midpoint of the flame depth at the base of the flame. An indicator of fire intensity.
What are the three primary methods used to get water out of water tenders?
Pump the water through the fire pump.
Use a pressurized dump through a quick dump discharge.
Unload the water by gravity through a gated dump valve.
Width of fireline in sparse surface fuels such as duff or light grass?
May only need to be a foot or two wide.
What causes subsidence inversions?
Large scale sinking of air associated with high pressure systems.
Indirect attack is used when?
Intensity of fire makes direct attack unsafe. Fire develops long fingers. Not enough time to develop a control line at the fire’s edge.
The home ignition zone includes the home and extends a distance of ____ to ____ around the outside perimeter of the house.
100 to 200 feet.
The steeper the slope?
The faster the fire spreads.
What kind of fuels react quite rapidly by precipitation since they gain or lose moisture within one hour?
Two most common strategies for dealing with residents?
Shelter in place and evacuation.
In heavier fuels what members with hand tools lead the crew?
Chainsaws, axes or brush hooks lead followed by Pulaskis, Rouge Hoes, McLeods, combi tools and shovels.
The pneumatic torch assembly is comprised of?
Torch assembly, fuel tank and compressed air cylinder mounted to backpack or ATV.
Most modern water systems now use at least ____ diameter pipes for water mains.
What should be abandoned within 100 feet of transmission lines?
A Type 3 wildland engine has a GVWR generally greater than?
Affects fuels as result of long term drying.
To protect all sides of the structure single jacket forestry hose provides the ____ needed.
Definition of flanks of a fire?
Parts of a fire’s perimeter that are roughly parallel to the main direction of spread.
In some agencies structural engines assigned to interface areas commonly carry?
Ground cover hose packs and hand tools.
A Type 6 wildland engine has a GVWR of?
Generally less than 26,000 pounds.
The PSD dispenser has a lower operating cost than a?
When is a direct attack normally used?
On relatively small fires with flame lengths not more than 4 feet and where heat/smoke don’t keep FFs from working at the fire’s edge.
Definition of a fire whirl?
Spinning vortex column of ascending hot air and gases rising from a fire and carrying aloft smoke, debris and flame. Range in size from one foot to over 500 feet in diameter. Large fire whirls have the intensity of a small tornado.
Class A fire hydrant flow rating?
Definition of fire edge?
Boundary of the burned or burning material at any given time.
To be effective safety zones should have a radius equal to at least?
Four times the flame length.
Definition of mobile attack?
Suppressing fire along a fire edge by driving mobile apparatus along the perimeter and applying fire streams to knock down the fire. Also called pump and roll.
Structural engines where not designed for and should never be deployed?
In an off road capacity.
Wind is the horizontal movement of air relative to the surface of the earth. Most critical weather element affecting wildland fire behavior by increasing fires oxygen supply and fuel drying.
Definition of hotspotting?
Checking the spread of fire at points of more rapid spread or special threat.
The U.S. Forestry Service has identified several common fire behavior characteristics that have resulted in FF fatalities or near misses called the?
Common Denominators of Fire Behavior on Tragedy Fires.
Constructing a control line is generally not as taxing on the crews because?
They are working away from the heat and smoke at the fire’s edge.
A Type 6 wildland engine has a minimum crew of?
Where were hotshot crews started?
In southern California in the late 1940s on the Cleveland and Angeles National Forests.
When does size up start?
It starts before a call comes in from dispatch and continues throughout the incident.
Definition of inversion layer?
The layer through which the departure from the usual increase or decrease with altitude of the value of an atmospheric property. The lowest altitude at which the departure is found is called the base of the inversion.
How often should fire hydrants be tested to ensure they are operating and all parts are in good working order?
At least once a year.
A Type 6 wildland engine has how much 1 1/2” hose?
A Type 2 crew is expected to complete ____ of line in short grass per hour.
18 chains or 1,188 feet.
Suspended and upright fuels, brush over 6’. Physically separated from the ground.
If a fire is too intense for a safe and effective frontal attack what is the best alternative?
Definition of origin?
Point of original ignition of fire.
Tractor plows may be ___ or ___.
Tracked or rubber tired vehicles.
Definition of flanking fire suppression?
Attacking a fire by working along the flanks from an anchor point either simultaneously or endeavoring to connect two lines at the head.
What has a very strong influence on local winds?
Greatest upslope flow is generally?
Mid afternoon with speeds between 3 and 8mpg. Can be gusty.
_____ and _____ also contribute to the intensity of fire spread.
Weather and topography.
What is an additional to attract the heavy equipment operator’s attention?
In addition to hand signals one blast on a police whistle.
The three types of water tenders have water tanks capacity ranging from ___ to ___.
What must all control lines have?
An anchor point.
Where can a Type 3 fire engine be found?
In a mountainous or rural community.
All ground cover firefighting apparatus should meet what NFPA requirements?
NFPA 1906 standard for wildland fire apparatus.
What do sharp tools reduce the need for with FFs?
Reduce the need for FFs to raise sharp hand tools above their heads.
Who has the authority to require people to evacuate their homes?
Most firelines vary in width from ___ to ____.
A foot to a few yards.
What is atmospheric stability?
The degree to which vertical motion in the atmosphere is enhanced or suppressed.
The Stubby Flares can cause what?
Can damage the fired end of the flare and cause more wear and tear on the launcher than #6 loads.
In situations where the fuel through which the line is to be cut is primarily dry leaf litter and duff, some agencies use what to construct a fireline?
A Helitorch is comprised of?
Torch assembly, propane, tank, pumps, valves, wiring harness and ignition tip.
What is the foundation for decision making the ground cover fire environment?
The NCWG Types 4, 5, & 6 tractor plows are classified as?
Light tractor plows with smaller capacity.
A Type 6 wildland engine has a minimum pump capacity of?
Definition of a lookout?
Person or location to detect and report fires from a vantage point.
Definition of smoldering?
Fire burning without visible flame and barely spreading.
It is recommended to install a hoseline tee with a valved male branch every ___.
200 feet of hose.
In North America what exposures receive more of the sun’s direct rays and heat?
Full southern exposures.
Class AA fire hydrant cap color?
The three types of water tenders have pumps ranging from ___ to ___.
During the 48 hours it typically takes to mobilize an Incident Management team who often serves as IC and other overhead positions?
A Type 4 wildland engine has a minimum crew of?
FFs should also look around when working on the fireline to maintain ____ between themselves and other crew members.
According to the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) use what kind of flagging for escape routes?
Fluorescent pink with the words ESCAPE ROUTE in black with black dots.
Definition of a running fire?
Behavior of a fire spreading rapidly with a well defined head usually associated with influences of wind and/or slope.
Definition of a crown fire?
Fire that advances from top to top of trees or shrubs. Driven by intensity of surface fire, slope, spacing of crowns and wind.
What are the Standard FF Orders?
- Keep informed on the weather.
- Know what the fire is doing.
- Base all actions on current and expected fire behavior.
- ID escape and safety routes.
- Post lookouts.
- Be alert, keep calm, think clearly and act decisively.
- Maintain prompt communication.
- Give clear instructions and make sure they are understood.
- Maintain control of your forces at all times.
- Fight fire aggressively but provide for safety first.
What is a fire crew comprised of?
18-20 crew members.
3 squad bosses.
Extreme caution is necessary in driving/operating a vehicle that may weigh as much as?
An unstable atmosphere is defined as?
An atmosphere that encourages upward motion.
A stable atmosphere is defined as?
An atmosphere that resists upward motion.
Definition of slopover?
A fire edge that crosses a control line or natural barrier.
A good rule to follow is for the landing zone to be ____ the size of the rotor diameter.
There may be as much as a ___ difference between fuels in an open field and fuels under a canopy/
Flame length of 4-8 feet can be directly attacked with?
Mechanical assistance from engines and heavy equipment.
Definition of shelter in place?
Remaining in a structure or vehicle when a fire moves through.
Definition of heel?
Rear portion of wildland fire also called the rear.
The pneumatic torch uses a mixture of diesel and gas to dispense fuel ___ to ___ and is effective in all fuel types.
8 to 20 feet.
Definition of the green?
Area of unburned fuel.
How many crew does each dozer have?
A Type 3 wildland engine holds how many gallons in tank?
Where is backfiring done?
Downwind side of a large fire to take advantage of the natural indraft of the main body of fire.
When is mobile attack primarily used?
On grass fires in a fast moving direct attack with water or foam.
On steep slopes fireline width should be?
At least two times the fuel height.
What is the primary advantage of a direct attack?
FFs are close to or working in the black which may be used as a safety zone.
A Type 1 crew is expected to complete ____ of line in short grass per hour.
30 chains or 1,980 feet.
Where is the PSD most effective?
In dry, light, continuous fuels and aquatic areas like marshes or swamps.
A Type 6 wildland engine has a tank capacity of?