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Flashcards in Groundwork Deck (42)
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1

define argument

a group of statements, some of which, the premises, are offered in support of another statement

2

define premise

A statement that provides support for a conclusion (or sub-conclusion) in an argument.

3

define conclusion

A statement that is the endpoint of an argument; what we want others to believe. Often, the answer to a question.

4

define premise indicator

A word or phrase that are used to indicate that the following statement is a premise. Most premises don't have indicators, and not all indicators are reliable.

5

define conclusion indicator

a word or phrase that is used to indicate that the following statement is a conclusion. Not all conclusions have indicators or are reliable

6

define disposition

An underlying tendency to have an attitude; a part of your character or personality.

7

define open-mindedness

A disposition to consider different ideas, beliefs, points of view, approaches, and assumptions.

8

define psychological bias

A tendency to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment. Also known as a cognitive bias.

9

define confirmation bias

A psychological bias towards hearing only agreement with your views by interpreting arguments as supporting your views when they don't, or ignoring those that don't.

10

define worldview

A personal set of assumptions, defaults, heuristics, priorities, and values that distorts and limits everyone's critical thinking.

11

what is a statement?

a self-contained sentence (or part of a sentence) that is either TRUE or FALSE

12

what is a non-statement?

is a sentence that is not a statement. Can't be true or false

13

examples of non-statements

questions
commands
greetings
exclamations
arguments, and sentences that refer to other sentences.

14

what is a rhetorical questions

a question used to express a statement. (should be rephrased into a statement)

15

examples of premise indicators

because
since
supposing that
assuming that
given that

16

examples of conclusion indicators

therefore
thus
hence
consequently
so

17

examples of non-arguments

opinion piece in newspapers
talk-back radio
talking to friends
stating a belief

18

types of non-arguments

advice
reports
instructions
explanations

19

what is an explanation.

a statement or collection of statements describing why or how something is the case

20

what is a vague sentence

a sentence (or word) which has a range of possible meanings that blur together. has a lack or clarity or meaning

21

what are the two types of vagueness

1. not specifying relevant details
2. using generic words instead of precise terms

22

what is an ambiguous sentence

a sentence or word which has several distinct non-overlapping meanings

23

what are the three types of ambiguity

1. lexical ambiguity
2. prosodic ambiguity
3. syntactic ambiguity

24

what is lexical ambiguity

when words have more than one meaning

25

what is prosodic ambiguity

when emphasis of different words makes the sentence have more than one meaning

26

what is syntactic ambiguity

when sentences have different grammatical structures causing them to have different meanings

27

what is a generalisation

is a statement that applies to classes of objects or events, rather than to an individual

28

what are the three types of generalisation

1. conceptual generalisation
2. empirical generalisation
3. social generalisations

29

what is a conceptual generalisation

a statement that says one concept is part of another
e.g. all cats have four legs

30

what is an empirical generalisation

a statement that says all the individual real objects or events in a class each have a specific property
e.g. most cats have four legs