Flashcards in Groundwork Deck (42)
a group of statements, some of which, the premises, are offered in support of another statement
A statement that provides support for a conclusion (or sub-conclusion) in an argument.
A statement that is the endpoint of an argument; what we want others to believe. Often, the answer to a question.
define premise indicator
A word or phrase that are used to indicate that the following statement is a premise. Most premises don't have indicators, and not all indicators are reliable.
define conclusion indicator
a word or phrase that is used to indicate that the following statement is a conclusion. Not all conclusions have indicators or are reliable
An underlying tendency to have an attitude; a part of your character or personality.
A disposition to consider different ideas, beliefs, points of view, approaches, and assumptions.
define psychological bias
A tendency to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment. Also known as a cognitive bias.
define confirmation bias
A psychological bias towards hearing only agreement with your views by interpreting arguments as supporting your views when they don't, or ignoring those that don't.
A personal set of assumptions, defaults, heuristics, priorities, and values that distorts and limits everyone's critical thinking.
what is a statement?
a self-contained sentence (or part of a sentence) that is either TRUE or FALSE
what is a non-statement?
is a sentence that is not a statement. Can't be true or false
examples of non-statements
arguments, and sentences that refer to other sentences.
what is a rhetorical questions
a question used to express a statement. (should be rephrased into a statement)
examples of premise indicators
examples of conclusion indicators
examples of non-arguments
opinion piece in newspapers
talking to friends
stating a belief
types of non-arguments
what is an explanation.
a statement or collection of statements describing why or how something is the case
what is a vague sentence
a sentence (or word) which has a range of possible meanings that blur together. has a lack or clarity or meaning
what are the two types of vagueness
1. not specifying relevant details
2. using generic words instead of precise terms
what is an ambiguous sentence
a sentence or word which has several distinct non-overlapping meanings
what are the three types of ambiguity
1. lexical ambiguity
2. prosodic ambiguity
3. syntactic ambiguity
what is lexical ambiguity
when words have more than one meaning
what is prosodic ambiguity
when emphasis of different words makes the sentence have more than one meaning
what is syntactic ambiguity
when sentences have different grammatical structures causing them to have different meanings
what is a generalisation
is a statement that applies to classes of objects or events, rather than to an individual
what are the three types of generalisation
1. conceptual generalisation
2. empirical generalisation
3. social generalisations
what is a conceptual generalisation
a statement that says one concept is part of another
e.g. all cats have four legs