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Flashcards in Growth and Development from Book ?s Deck (36)
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Most stage-based theories of development primarily focus on:
a) The continuity of development
b) The discontinuity of development
c) Persistence of inherent personality characteristics
d) the influence of context on development

b) The discontinuity of development
--> these theories address deviations from developmental progress norms


Using time-outs with kids is an example of:

operant conditioning

--B.F. Skinner's model of operant conditioning, with a negative consequence for an unacceptable behavior


Good communication among families, schools, and primary care providers is an example of which ecological concept?
a) Microsystem
b) Mesosystem
c) Exosystem
d) Macrosystem

b) Mesosystem

a mesosystem = the link or relationship b/t the various settings (microsystems) w/in which a child exists (home, school, day care, etc.)


Early reflexive responses that are not related to survival include all but:
a) Babinski
b) Moro
c) Swimming
d) Rooting

d) Rooting
--> is a key survival reflex!


What should a child's weight at 1 yr be in comparison to birth weight?

At 1 year, weight should be approximately triple the birth weight


Which developmental theory best explains the multifactorial etiology of failure to thrive?

Transactional Theory
--explains risks and protective factors assoc. w/resilience and vulnerability
--> it may explain some of the environmental factors assoc. w/FTT


Most healthy infants are able to reach, grasp, and hold on to a rattle or other small toy by about:
a) 2 mos
b) 6 mos
c) 8 mos
d) 10 mos

b) 6 mos


When is pincer grasp mastered?

9 mos


Is stuttering with fatigue and excitement okay in a preschooler? 7yo?

--not unusual in a preschooler but may indicate a more pervasive problem in a 7yo


The underlying emotion of an insecurely attached (avoidant) relationship is:
a) Ambivalence
b) Deprivation
c) Anger
d) Unconditional Love

c) Anger
--> underlying anger characterizes avoidance or an insecure bond


Piaget's stage of cognitive development for preschoolers?

preoperational stage


Which behavior would you expect to decrease during the preschool years?
a) rough-and-tumble play
b) instrumental aggression
c) hostile aggression
d) cooperative play

b) instrumental aggression
--> preschoolers strongly define what is "theirs," be it a toy or a space or a special privilege; this aggression wanes as they begin to understand sharing and appropriate impulse control


What is the hallmark of preschoolers?

there is little they think they do not control; they think the world revolves around them and that everything that happens is bc they did or didn't do something


Which of the following strategies would not be appropriate to include as part of your management of a 9yo boy who is obese?
a) referral to nutritionist for weight reduction plan
b) increase physical exercise
c) behavior modification strategies to deal with stress and/or reinforce tx plan
d) involve family in management program

a) referral to nutritionist for weight reduction plan
--> tx in a 9yo requires a multifactorial approach, including "eating healthy" and exercise, and needs not necessarily focus on weight reduction...the goal is to prevent wt gain and maintain wt until linear growth catches up


First sign of female puberty?

breast buds!
--followed closely by the development of pubic hair
--peak height velocity and menarche generally occur at age 12 1/2 yrs


Which of the following findings would be most helpful in distinguishing obesity from large body frame in an adolescent who is concerned about her weight?
a) tricep skin fold measurement
b) weight-for-height ratio
c) BMI
d) percent of ideal body weight

c) BMI
-->BMI is generally considered the best index for evaluation of weight; it correlates weight with height


Most common form of abuse seen in peds primary care?

soft tissue injuries
--such as bruises, abrasions, and lacerations
--are most common form of abuse in all age groups


Which of the following clinical findings would not suggest an eating disorder with a purging component?
a) sore throat
b) brittle nails
c) diarrhea
d) finger calluses

c) diarrhea
--> eating d/o's with a purging component are characterized by constipation, rather than diarrhea, resulting from chronic laxative use


Effects on pupils: opioids, amphetamines, LSD, nicotine?

opioids: constricted pupils

amphetamines & LSD: dilated pupils

nicotine: generally no effect on pupils


Which of the following dx's is not more common among males?
b) conduct d/o's
c) Suicide
d) FTT

d) FTT
--> FTT has no predominance in males or females


In addition to specific academic skill deficits, learning disabilities are commonly associated with which of the following characteristics?
a) Perceptual-motor impairments, normal motor function
b) Perceptual-motor impairments, impulsiveness
c) Perceptual-motor impairments, Down syndrome
d) Lack of impulsiveness, perceptual-motor impairment

b) Perceptual-motor impairments, impulsiveness
--> children w/LD may demonstrate impulsive behaviors as attention-getting behaviors


What is somnambulism? Favor nocturnus?

somnambulism = sleepwalking
--> can occur in school-aged children

Favor nocturnes = night terrors
--> can occur in preschool-aged children


By the time a child enters 1st grade, he/she should be able to draw a person with ___ parts and count to ___ or more.

--draw a person with at least 6 parts
--count to 10 or more


While examining a 10yo's teeth, you note that the upper incisors slightly overlap the lower incisors. The second and lower first molars are absent. Your assessment is:
a) Malocclusion
b) Delayed mandibular dentition
c) Normal dentition
d) Hyperdontia

b) Delayed mandibular dentition
--> the mandibular (lower) molars often erupt b/t ages 6-7...even allowing for individual variation, this is a considerable delay

hyperdontia = supeernumerary teeth


Developmentally, when would the concept of cheating be understood?

not until 7yo
--idea of playing fairly to ensure everyone an equal chance occurs with maturity and the ability to differentiate among moral choices


Which of the following physical findings in a 2yo warrants an immediate referral to a neurologist/neurosurgeon?
a) Head circumference growing faster than ht and wt
b) Unresolved cephalhematoma
c) Rigid and immobile sagittal suture
d) snapping sensation when pressure is applied to parietal bone

c) Rigid and immobile sagittal suture
--> indicates premature fusing resulting in craniosynostosis
--> for proper brain growth, sutures need to approximate each other yet remain mobile


You would expect a school-aged child to grow how much and gain how much wt per year?

--grow about 2.5 inches/yr
--gain 5-7 lbs/yr


Why is handedness before 1 year a concern?

--may indicate cerebral palsy
--> should carefully assess for increase in deep tendon reflexes and tone


Which of the following best describes behavior associated with Piaget's concrete operational phase?
a) Learning primarily by trial and error
b) Interpreting events in relationships to themselves
c) Categorizing information into lower or higher classes
d) Drawing logical conclusions from observations

c) Categorizing information into lower or higher classes

--concrete operations occur during the school-age years as children begin to understand the characteristics of things and objects
--classification is a thought process that develops during this time


The principle that growth and development becomes increasingly integrated is best demonstrated by:
a) Gaining head control before raising the chest
b) Bringing cup to mouth, tipping, and swallowing
c) Rolling over before sitting
d) Grasping with fist before using fingers

b) Bringing cup to mouth, tipping, and swallowing
--> infants must first develop hand-mouth coordination before incorporating tipping and swallowing, which is a more integrated function

--head control before raising the chest: demonstrates the principle of cephalocaudal progression

--Rolling over before sitting/Grasping with fist before using fingers: suggest proximal-distal progression