Flashcards in GU Deck (25):
When do uric acid stones form?
increased cell turnover, urine is acidic, dehydration
When are struvite stones formed?
urine is alkaline bc of urease producing bacteria (proteus)
What ist he most common cause of overflow incontinence in men?
What is stress incontinence?
develop incontinence after coughing or sneezing, more common in women; normal PVR volume
What are the causes of priapism?
neurogenic lesions (spinal cord injury)
A patient presents with penile discharge that stain positive for gram negative diplococci. This is?
What is the typical presentation of chlamydia?
often asymptomatic, can be associated with clear penile discharge
How is chlamydia diagnosed?
Nucelic acid amplification tests
What is the treatment for chlamydia?
azithromycin or doxycycline
What is the treatment for herpes?
A patient presents with tender lymph nodes in both groins. What is this and what causes it?
lymphogranuloma venereum (caused by a variant of chlamydia)
A patient presents with painful lesions on the penis. What is this and what causes it?
chancroid - caused by hemophilis ducreyi
Describe the stages of syphillis
Stage 1 - painless chancre
Stage 2 - anything, often a non-itchy maculopapular rash involving soles and palms
Stage 3 - gummatous disease, neurosyphillis, tabes dorsalis, cardiovascular disease
How is syphillis diagnosed?
RPR or VDRL
What is the Jarisch Herxheimer reaction?
side effect of syphillis treatment characterized by fever, muscle pain,
How does HIV present acutely?
rash, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphadenopathy
What are the complications of PID
Scarred fallopian tube
Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA)
Tubal factor infertility
Chronic pelvic pain
What is the presentation and treatment of disseminated gonorrhea?
tenosynovitis, dermatitis, and multiple skin lesions (pustules) migratory polygmyalgias- treat with IV ceftriaxone
A patient who travels a lot presents with painless ulcers on the penis. What is this and what causes it? How can it be diagnosed?
Caused by klebsiella granulomatis
diagnosed by donovan bodies on Wright stain (rod shaped oval organisms)
What are the treatment options for BPH?
alpha 1 blockers (doxazosin, tamsulosin) or 5 alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride)
What are possible presentations of RCC?
classic triad (hematuria, flank pain, palpable mass)
others: scrotal varices, paraneoplastics (polycythemia, hypercalcemia, fever, etc)
What are the risk factors for developing UTIs?
honeymoon cystitis - sexual intercourse due to introduction of uropathogens
Terminal hematuria is an indication of ...
bladder or prostate injury
A patient presents with nocturia in the setting of a family history of "blood issues". This is...
hyposthenuria (an inability to concentrate urine) - in patients with sickle cell disease