GU tract conditions Flashcards Preview

Nephrology > GU tract conditions > Flashcards

Flashcards in GU tract conditions Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...

What is testicular torsion?

the testis is abnormally twisted on its spermatic cord, thus compromising arterial supply and venous drainage of the testis, leading to testicular ischemia


What are the clinical findings of testicular torsion?

Sudden onset of unilateral pain and scrotal swelling are present. Testis is painful to palpation: testicle and scrotum are edematous. There is no relief with elevation of the testicle. (negative phrens signs)


How do we diagnose testicular torsion?

clinical diagnosis


How do we treat testicular torsion?

mild analgesics may be administered once the diagnosis is made. This is a SURGICAL EMERGENCY. Manual detorsion required. Successful or not surgery will still have to be preformed and then preformed again electively on the other testicle.


What is a varicocele?

the formation of a venous varicosity within the spermatic vein (pampiniform plexus)


Which spermatic cord is most likely to develop a varicocele?

The left because the vein is longer than the right and joins the left renal vein at a right angle.


What are the clinical features of a varicocele?

A chronic, non-tender mass that does not transluminate is seen. The lesion has the consistency of a bag of worms, increased with the valsalva and decreases with elevation of the scrotum or supine positition.


What is the diagnostic method of choice for a varicocele?

doppler sonography


How is a varicocele treated?

surgical repair (left spermatic vein ligation) can be preformed if the varicocele is painful or if it appears to be a cause of infertility.


What is a spermatocele?

A typically painless cystic mass containing sperm that lies superior and posterior and are distinct from the testes. Some may stimulate a solid tumor.


What are the clinical findings for a spermatocele?

a palpable, round, firm, cystic mass with distinct borders, free floating above the testicle which transluminates. The mass may be tender.


What is the diagnostic method of choice for a spermatocele?

Scrotal US


How do we treat a spermatocele?

no treatment needed. Large spermatoceles can be surgically removed or sclerosed


What is a hydrocele?

A mass of the fluid filled congenital remnants of the tunica vaginalis, usually resulting from a patent processus vaginalis.


What are the clinical findings of a hydrocele?

A soft nontender fullness of the hemiscrotum that transluminates. The mass may wax and wane in size; an indirect hernia may be concurrently present.


What is the treatment for a hydrocele?

Elective repair is clinically indicated


What is benign prostatic hyperplasia?

The most common benign tumor in men and its incidence is age related.


What are the signs and symptoms for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

hesitancy, decreased force, straining, dribbling, urgency, frequency and nocturia


What needs to be included in the physcial exam in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia?

A physcial exam, DRE and focused neuro exam should be preformed in all patients. Examination of the lower abdomen should be preformed to assess for a distended bladder.


How do we treat benign prostatic hyperplasia?

patients with mild symptoms (AUA scores 0-7) should be manage with watchful waiting only.