Flashcards in Guides for all LR questions Deck (12)
Must Be True
Identify the answer that can be directly supported by the stimulus. If an answer could be false, then it is wrong.
Point At Issue (agree/disagree)
The right answer needs evidential support from BOTH speakers in order to conclude that they agree/disagree. For a disagree, one will affirm the truth of the claim and the other will deny it.
Start by identifying your conclusion and supporting premises. The evidence will never be enough for your conclusion. Aim to identify this gap with a predicted flaw. Examine the answer choices to see if the argument is flawed in the predicted way. 4/5 answers will be a different flaw that what is mentioned.
Parallel (reasoning or flaw)
A matching game! If it is a parallel reasoning question: diagram or summarize the reasoning and look for the right answer choice that matches.
Parallel Flaw: Identify the flaw in the argument or logic diagram, and then locate the answer choice that is making the same exact flaw.
(sentence order is irrelevant)
Find the main conclusion. Identify the statement in question and the relation to this main conclusion. Does it support it? Is it the conclusion itself?
Resolve the Paradox
Find the paradox in the stimulus. Then, pick the answer choice that would rationally explain why this paradox exists. Tricky answers might be a true statement that doesn't actually help to explain what is going on.
Know your argument. Find the conclusion and its evidence. Strengthen or weaken this relationship.
For strengthen: How can I best support this argument? For weaken questions, remember you are on THE OTHER TEAM than the arguer. If the argument says it's a cold day out, so an ice cream cone WILL stay frozen if left out, then you need evidence that says the icecream cone WON'T stay frozen. Perhaps it's not quite cold enough.
This answer choice will 100% guarantee the argument conclusion is 100%. FILL THE GAP. The right answer to a sufficient assumption question will always connect what has happened to what the conclusion claims.
The correct answer is required, it MUST BE TRUE. The negation test says that if you negate the correct answer choice, the argument will be destroyed.
ex: I won $100 playing poker, so I'm going to bring $100 in winnings home to my family.
Necessary (required) assumption: I did NOT stop at the mall and spend my winnings on the way home.
Negation test: I DID stop at the mall and spend my winnings on the way home. (argument now fails).
Justify the Principle
Pick the law or moral statement that the scenario in question is following. Question (Scenario): it's 2 am, you got towed.
Answer (Rule): "you can't park between 12am and 5 am."
Conform to the Principle
Start with the rule, find the correct scenario answer choice. The opposite of justify principle questions.
Rule: you can't park between 12 am and 5 pm
Correct Answer: "I parked at 2 am and my car got towed"