Flashcards in Gut Microbiota in Disease Pathology Deck (39):
When changes to the amount and quantity of microbiota causes pathology. Affected by interactions between food, bacteria and the immune system.
What is the effect of large fibre molecules in the diet?
Digested by specific types of microbiota that break them down to give SCFAs, e.g. acetate and butyrate.
Give the effects of butyrate on the gut immune system.
Binds the GPR43 receptor on Tregs - promotes Treg survival and results in increased IL-10 production.
Give evidence of diet influencing the presence of certain bacteria.
High fat diets significantly increase colitis incidence in IL-10 KO mice, more than lower fat diets. High fat diet increased presence of B.wasdsworthia - causes increased colitis.
How does the immune system affect the microbiota composition?
Through the production of IgA that is specific to certain bacteria.
How do segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) affect immune cells?
Increases number of Th17 - healthy homeostasis.
How do clostridia affect immune cells?
Increases number of Tregs - healthy homeostasis.
How do prevotella affect immune cells?
Increases number of Tregs, when found above the mucus layer. Increases number of Th1/Th17 cells when found at the epithelial cell layer during dysbiosis.
How do klebsiella affect immune cells?
Increases the number of Th1 and Th17 cells - causing inflammation.
Includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Complex diseases with many factors involved, including defects in autophagy, and the roles of miRNAs.
What does the increased incidence of IBD in western countries suggest?
Suggests that lifestyle is influencing incidence - but it is hard to tell to what extent this is due to improved diagnostic methods.
How many susceptibility genes have been identified for IBD?
> 200, e.g. the NOD2 NLR.
Give the features of dysbiosis in IBD.
- reduced microbiota diversity.
- decrease of SCFA-producing bacteria.
- increase of mucolytic bacteria.
- increase of sulfate-reducing bacteria.
- increase of pathogenic bacteria, e.g. E. coli.
What is the result of reduced microbiota diversity in dysbiosis?
Decrease energy sources available for epithelial cell growth - pathogens can pass barrier more easily.
What is the result of a decrease of SCFA-producing bacteria during dysbiosis?
Decreased Treg survival and increased inflammation.
What is the result of an increase of mucolytic bacteria during dysbiosis?
Degradation of mucus layer - pathogens can pass barrier more easily.
What is the result of an increase of sulfate-reducing bacteria in dysbiosis?
Increased epithelial cell damage and inflammation.
What does an increase in pathogenic bacteria during dysbiosis affect?
Alters mucosal permeability.
Give evidence for a change in microbiota composition in IBD.
Mice fed TNBS (chemically damages the epithelium and induces colitis) could be rescued by addition of F. prausnitzii. Reported that F.prauznitzii is depleted in IBD patients.
What effect does regular antibiotic treatment have on gut microbiota?
Kills microbiota, enabling colonisation of pathogenic bacteria that are normally kept out by the commensal bacteria.
How is C. difficile infection prevented in the gut?
Primary bile acids produced in the gut are converted to secondary bile acids which have negative effects on the growth of C. difficile.
What effect does antibiotic treatment have on C.difficile infection?
When commensal bacteria are lost due to antibiotic treatment, there is an imbalance in the production of primary bile acids -> secondary bile acids not produced.
This promotes the presence of succinate -> aids growth of C.difficile.
What is an effective treatment for recurring C.difficile infection?
Transplant of healthy donor faeces into the lower parts of the stomach of patients - faeces contains microbiota. Not yet common practice.
Give an example of a disease where other organs are affected by gut microbiota.
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Chronic autoinflammatory disease affecting joints and other tissues.
How many candidate gene have been identified for rheumatoid arthritis?
100 - where HLA is the most important genetic risk factor.
Give examples of host proteins that auto-antibodies are produced against in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated proteins.
Where can auto-reactive antibodies be found in rheumatoid arthritis?
In the synovial fluid.
Describe changes to gut microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
- Decreased Bifidobacteria.
- Decreased Bacteroidetes.
- Increased Prevotella.
Give evidence that rheumatoid arthritis originates at mucosal surfaces.
IgA anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) is detectable before the onset of arthritis.
Give evidence that rheumatoid arthritis is influenced by microbiota.
IL-1Ra -/- mice develop arthritogenic disease - does not occur in germ free mice. Addition of lactobacillus to germ free mice - disease incidence increases.
Give evidence that the TLR4 pathway is involved in bacterial recognition and development of arthritis.
TLR4 KO mice had decreased disease severity.
Describe the hygiene hypothesis.
If an individual grows up in a family environment or day care centres, they are less likely to develop allergies.
Children living in a more sterile environment, from single-child families, are more likely to develop allergies, asthma and eczema.
What is the relationship between the western world and allergy incidence?
We no longer encounter enough antigens in the western world to give the correct microbiota and immune system development, giving enhanced onset of allergies and autoimmune disease.
Why has there been evidence that farm environments lowered incidence of allergy in children?
Pregnant mothers encounter more microbial products and xenogenic signals when living in farm environments -> activates Th1 responses.
Without this, there is activation of Th2 (in competition with Th1), and development of allergies and autoimmune disease.
What is a potential danger of farm lifestyles?
Potential to encounter dangerous pathogenic pathogens which require treatment with high doses of antibiotics, which negatively affects the microbiome.
Give evidence that the microbiota are required for development of the gut immune system.
Germ free mice have poorly developed MLNs, PPs, cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles. Colonisation with a single bacterial species can reverse this.
What is needed in future research in mucosal immunology?
To look at it as a global organ, to understand the relationships between different mucosal sites.