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Flashcards in GYN Chapters Deck (85):
1

The ______ ligament supports the tubes and ovaries

broad

2

The ____ ligament supports the uterine fundus

round---think round like the fundus of ut

3

the _____ ligament supports the cervix

cardinal---c for both. cervix/cardinal

4

The ______ ligaments support ovaries and tubes

suspensory

5

What is the reason that there is a correlation between kidney and uterine anomalies?

they are both formed at the same time in utero

6

The largest part of the uterus is the

corpus (body)

7

Uterine Isthmus is also known as

lower uterine segment

8

Cornua is where the ___ attaches to the ______

fallopian tubes attach to uterus at the level of the horns

9

endometrial tissue in myometrium

adenomyosis

10

Sonographic findings of adenomyosis?

1. enlarged heterogenous
2. myometrial cysts

11

Age group of adenomyosis?

older and multiparous

12

The most common benign tumor is the fibroid. What pts are at risk for this?

obese, black, nonsmokers, perimenopausal.

13

Name the different types of fibroids

1. intramural- myometrium
2. submucosal- endometrium
3. pedunculated-at risk for torsion causing necrosis.

14

Cervical carcinoma is common in patients younger than ___ years of age

50

15

What is mittelschmerz?

ovulation pain

16

Ovaries are stimulated by follicle stimulated hormone released by the __________

anterior pituitary gland.

17

formed as dominant follicle ruptures- produced progesterone- often resolved after 16 weeks of gestation

corpus luteum

18

Theca Lutein cyst will have elevated ______ lab value. It is common in what kind of gestation?

HCG, common with multiple gestations

19

What is a dermoid a result of?

results from retention of an unfertilized ovum

20

What is the bright spot in a dermoid?

dermoid plug

21

Dermoids are composed of what?

tissue bone hari fat cartilage deeth and digestive components

22

Thecomas produce _____ and are common in post menopausal women

estrogen

23

Chocolate chip cysts are common in

endometriosis, endometrioma

24

What are endometriomas more at risk for?

infertility and hemorrhage

25

Are serous or mucinous cystadenomas more commonly bilateral?

serous

26

cystadenoma more common in 40-50s and pregnancy

serous cystadenoma

think serous/senior ((even tho that age isnt old :) )

27

Are serous or mucinous cystadenomas more common to have papillary projections?

serous

28

Serous cystadenocarcinomas will have an elevated _____

CA 125

29

Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas will have malignant ascites called ______

pseudomyxoma

30

metastized from GI tract, appears hyperechoic and bilateral.

Krukenberg

31

younger than 30, elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (similar to seminoma)

dysgerminoma

32

Is ovarian torsion more common on left or right?

right

33

* The hypothalamus located beneath the thalamus, regulates the _______ by anterior pituitary gland – Gonadotropin. L

release of hormones

34

H SURGES around day _____- resulting in ovulation.

14

35

Menopausal age is ___.

51

36

Why does menopause happen?

the estrogen and progesterone levels are lower therefore no follicles are seen making them smaller and become atrophic.

37

Polyps are linked to

infertility and longer periods

38

What is endometrial carcinoma linked to?

nulliparity, obesity, anovulation, between 50-65.

* for the age- think endometrial elder.. even though 50-65 is not old :) )

39

If a person has an elevated CA 125, is it automatically cancer? if not what else can it cause?

no

PID, fibroids, and endometriosis

40

presence of intrauterine adhesions or synechiae- scar formation after surgery esp a D &C, amenorrhea.

ashermanns

41

If you scan a patient that has fluid in Morrisons pouch and hyperemic flow around the inflamed tube, what woud this be?

salpingitis

42

o Thickiened irregular endo, pyosalpinx, FF, complex adnexal masses. Unable to break away ovary and tube with probe .

tubo-ovarian complex

43

further complication of

TOC, theres a loss of borders of mass and it is often bilateral.

44

If a patient is unable to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sex and possibly has PID, and a bicornuate/septate uterus, what could this indicate?

infertility.

45

obese pt w/ abnormal facial hair, infertility, enlarged cystic ovaries and chronic anovulation

PCOS

46

Patients with _________ ______ are more at risk for torsion due to the enlarged ovaries with theca lutein cysts

Ovarian Hyperstimulation

47

The reason we cant lay a patient all the way down who is in their 2nd or 3rd trimester is because

we can cause supine hypotensive syndrome which is the reduction of blood returning to heart due to compressed IVC

48

Reasons for vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

ectopic, Trophoblastic disease, miscarriage, blighted ovum, demise, and subchorionic hemmorrhage

49

Painless bleeding in 2nd trimester could indicate

placenta previa- covering the internal os of cervix.

50

Painful vaginal bleeding could be

placental abruption (premature separation of placenta from uterine wall before birth of fetus

51

Tell me the difference between painless vaginal bleeding and painful vaginal bleeding. What could it indicate?

Painless-placenta previa
Painful- placental abruption

52

triple screen is done at _______ weeks

what is it testing for?

15-20 weeks

HCG, MSAFP and estriol

53

types of breech

o complete (legs flexed at hip and flexion of knees)
o Frank- fetal buttock at cervix
o Footling- one foot at cervix

54

• Normal HCG levels DOUBLE EVERY ______ hrs in 1st trimester

48

55

A blastocyst consists of two parts

i. Trophoblastic cells-outer part which will become the placenta and chorion

ii. Inner part is the embryo, amnion, umbilical cord and yolk sacs.

56

Mother and fetus are connected thru tissue called

chorionic villi.

57

What week will the hintdgut, foregut and midgut be formed as well as the neural tube?

4th week

58

First heartbeat occurs in what week?

5th

59

Primary yolk sac regresses and two membranes are formed in the

4th week

60

How do we calculae the MSD?

L x W x H / 3

61

o Chorionic and amnion typically fuse middle of first trimester but may not totally fuse until

16 weeks

62

What is the normal heartbeat in the 6th week of gestation?

100-115

63

All internal external structures are forming at week

6

64

A rhomencephalon (hindbrain) is seen as a cyst in week ___ of gestation

7

65

The fetal limb buds are seen at week

7

66

Bowel herniation begins at week

8

67

Midgut migrates into umbilcal cord by week ___ if not resolved by week 12, followup is necessary

8

68

Placenta starts forming at week

11

69

The decidua basalis is the _____ contribution to placenta

maternal--
think the mother is allways boss--(bas/boss)

70

The chorion frondosum is t he ____ contribution to placenta

fetal.... think fetal/frondosum both start with Fs

71

Brain anatomy is seen at week

9-12

72

WHen doing the nuchal translucency test, what types of disorders can be indicative?

Trisomy 21, 18, and Turners

73

What weeks is the nuchal translucency done?

11-14 weeks

It shouldnt measure more than 3mm

74

What is a heterotopic pregnancy?

when there is an IUP and ectopic together.

75

What are the clinical findings of heterotopic pregnancy

vag bleeding, pain, pelvic mass, low HCG, low hematocrit

76

Whos more at risk for ectopic pregnancies?

o PID, multiparity, AMA, infertility treatment, HX ectopic or tubal surgery.

77

What medication is given for ectopics?

Methotrexate

78

Which type of ectopic is more common for hemmorhage?

interstitial/corneal pregnancies that are in the tube

79

clinical findings of fetal demise

vag bleeding with close cervix, often linked to chromosomal abnormalities

80

Another name for a molar pregnancy

gestational trophoblastic disease

81

Why do gestational trophoblastic happen?

result of abnormal combo of male and female gametes.

82

Clnical findings of trophoblastic disease

Elevated HCG ^, vaginal bleeding, hypertension, pre/eclampsia.

83

sonographic findings og Gestational trophoblastic disease

large complex mass with snowstorm appearance with cystic spaces representing chorionic villie.

84

New subchorionic hemorrhage will appear

hyperechoic or isoechoic

85

Old subchorionic hemorrhage will appear

anechoic