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Flashcards in OB Chapters Deck (44):
1

What is anopthalmia?

absence of eyes- this results from the failure of the optic vesicle to form

2

What syndromes are anopthalmia linked to?

Trisomy 13, 18

3

lots of distance between eyes

hypertelorism

4

o Commonly seen with anterior cephalocele displacing the orbits laterally

hypertelorism

5

closely spaced eyes

Hypotelorism

6

o Most commonly seen with holoprosencephaly and trisomy 13.

Hypotelorism

7

• At the level of the eyes, we can measure

o Ocular diameter- lateral wall of orbit to medial of orbit
o Interocular diameter- length between orbits
o Binocular diameter- length of lateral margin of one eye to lateral to other

8

The lips typically close by weeks

7-8

9

The palate closes by week

12

10

Cleft lip and palate are often seen with what disorders?

holoprosencephaly, trisomy 13, and amniotic band

11

What is macroglossia associated with?

Beckwith-Wiedmann Syndrome and Downs

12

oral teratoma- often complex

Epignathus

13

Micrognathia- small mandible and recessed chin is associated with

Seen with Trisomy 13/18

14

What is a cystic hygroma?

abnormal accumulation of lymphatic fluid within the soft tissue.

15

What is cystic hygromas associated with?

Seen with Turner, fetal hydrops, aneuploidy, Trisomy 13, 18, 21

16

An increased nuchal fold is often associated with?

Down syndrome

17

What level should the nuchal fold be measured?

o Taken at the level of the CSP (cavum). Measure from occipital bone-skin.

18

Nuchal fold is measured at

15-19 weeks

19

Nuchal Translucency is measured at

11-14 weeks

20

Signs and symptoms of Holoprosencephaly

-Hypotelorism-reduced distance between eyes

-Cebocephaly-nose with single nostril

-Cyclopia-fusion of orbits

-Cleft Lip

-Ethomocephaly-no nose, proboscis

21

Name the 5 parts of the spine in order from neck to tailbone

1. Cervical
2. Thoracic
3. Lumbar
4. Sacrum
5. Coccyx

22

Name 3 Neural tube defects

spina bifida, anencephaly, and cephalocele

23

When a patient has an elevated Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein, what 4 disorders are associated?

omphalocele, gastroschisis, fetal death, and multiple gestations

24

produced by yolk sac, fetal GI tract and liver, if AFP exits fetus thru an opening, thus the greater amount to pass into maternal circulation. making this lab elevated

Alphafetoprotein

25

The lower on spine the more greater the neurological damage of spina bifida

True or False

false the HIGHER on the spine the greater damage.

26

Sonographic findings for Spina Bifida

-Lemon sign- scalloping of frontal bones

-Banana sign-The cerebellum gets displaced inferiorly and posteriorly.

-No cisterna magna

-Enlarged lateral ventricles

-ELEVATED MSAFP with Aperta

27

Whats the difference between spina bifida occulta and aperta?

Aperta is an open defect and occulta is closed defect of spina bifida----- Think of occulta-like halt and aperta means open in spanish :)

28

 No herniation of spinal contents outside spinal column
 After born, can be diagnosed if sacral dimple, hemangioma or more hair is seen.

Spina Bifida Occulta

29

Spina Bifida containing meninges

Meningocele- part of aperta

30

Spina Bifida containing meninges and nerve roots

meningomyelocele

31

abnormal lateral curvature, appears as S shaped

scoliosis

32

abnormal posterior curvature of spine

Often seen with hemivertebrae, myelomeningoceles, amniotic band syndrome, and limb-body wall complex, and VACTERL

kyphosis

33

What would you suspect if you see a fetus that is close to placenta with marked scoliosis and a short umbilical cord

Limb-Body Wall Complex

34

Signs and symptoms of Limb-Body wall complex

Short or absent umbilical cord

ventral wall defects,

limb defects,

craniofacial defects,

scoliosis,

exencephaly (brain outside of head) ,

encephalocele (sac-like protrusions of the brain)

35

What happens if both parents are dwarfs and the child has both their type of achondroplasia

FATAL called homozygous

36

difference in BPD and FL around 24 weeks, micromelia (shortened limb), macrocrania, frontal bossing, flattened nasal bridge and trident hand.

Achondroplasia

37

rare LETHAL condition-

absent mineralization of skeletal bones.

deficiency in ossifaction of spine, pelvic and cranium.


Sonographically- severe limb shortening, rib fractures, and polyhydramnios

Achondrogensis

38

brittle bone disease- multiple fractures-poor ossification and decreased mineralization-

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

39

most severe and fatal. Bell shaped chest, decreased movement, skull demineralization, and the soft skull can be disorted.

Which type of osteogensis imperfecta is this?

Type 2- fatal.

40

sacral agenesis and coccyx. Diabetes has ^association. Sometimes clubbed feet is seen

Caudal Regression Syndrome

think caudal sacral kinda rhyme also caudal/club feet/coccyx all start with C

41

cloverleaf skull

frontal bossing

hydrocephalus.

The thoracic and AC will be unalike, narrow thorax (bell shaped chest)

hypoplasia of the lungs,

the abdomen will be big

Thanatophoric Dysplasia

42

Club foot is also called

talipes euinovarus

43

sticky bands result from rupture of the amnion and can entrap fetal parts and cause amputation of digits, limbs, and skull, and lead to facial clefting.

Amniotic Band syndrome

44

uncommon, absence or hypoplasia of the radius


Seen in Trisomy 13, 18, and VACTERL

Radial Ray Defect