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Flashcards in Haematology Deck (446):
1

What is polycythaemia (erythrocytosis)?

an increase in Hb, PCV and RBC

2

What is absolute polycythaemia?

true increase in red cell volume, primary or secondary

3

What is relative or stress/spurious polycythaemia?

normal red cell volume, decreased plasma volume, can occur in dehydration and burns

4

Is Hb or PCV a better indicator for polycythaemia?

PCV, as Hb could be low during iron deficiency

5

What is a normal PCV in the blood?

45%

6

Primary causes of polycythaemia?

polycythaemia rubra vera, epo receptor mutations, high oxygen affinity Hb

7

Secondary causes of polycythaemia?

increase in epo from hypoxia, smoking, high altitude, chronic lung disease, anoxia and tumour

8

What is polycythaemia rubra vera?

stem cell disorder with an alteration in the pluripotent progenitor cell, >95% in JAK2 mutations

9

What is the JAK2 gene?

a signal transducer, especially those triggered by haemopoetic growth factors

10

Symptoms of polycythaemia rubra vera?

tiredness, depression, vertigo, tinnitus, hypertension, angina, intermittent claudication, severe itching after hot bath, gout and peptic ulcer, plethora, deep dusky cyanosis, splenohepatomegaly, easy bleeding

11

What complications can polycythaemia lead to?

thrombosis

12

Treatment of polycythaemia?

venesection, chemo (IFN and hydroxyurea), low dose aspirin for thrombosis prophylaxis, anagrelide, radioactive 32P, surgery to prevent leukaemia (splenectomy), keep PCV and platelet count low, cytotoxic myelosuppresion hydroxycarbamide, regular removal of blood, phlebotomy to keep haematocrit

13

How many polycythaemia cases develop into myelofibrosis or AML?

myelofibrosis in 30%
AML in 5%

14

What will investigations show in polycythaemia?

raised haematocrit, Hb, RCC, MCV, raised WCC and platelets, neutrophil leucocytosis, o2 sat >92%, thrombocytosis, splenomegaly,

15

What will bone marrow show in polycythaemia?

bone marrow hypercellular with prominent megakaryocutes, low epo

16

What is the WHO diagnostic criteria for polycythaemia?

2 major and 1 minor or main major and 2 minor

17

What are the major criteria for polycythaemia?

Hb>16.5g/dL in women and 18.5d/dL in men

red cell mass >25% above normal

JAK2 617V F mutation

18

What are the minor criteria for polycythaemia?

BM biopsy showing hypercellularity

low serum epo

endogenous erythroid colony in vitro

increased serum uric acid and vit b12 and vit b12 binding protein

19

What is the prognosis of polycythaemia without treatment?

6-18 months

20

Why is uric acid increased in polycythaemia?

increased RBC breakdown, increases uric acid

21

Treatment of secondary polycythaemia?

phlebotomy to maintain circulation and reduce viscosity

treat underlying condition

o2 for hypoxia, weight loss, smoking cessation, surgery to correct AV shunts

hydroxyurea

22

What is disseminated intravascular coagulation?

widespread inappropriate fibrin deposition within the vasculature from increased tissue factor

23

What are the causes of DIC?

infection - meningococcaemia, septicaemia, malaria, varicella, CMV, HIV
malignancy - AML, mucin secreting adenocarcinoma
obstetric complications - amniotic fluid embolus, retained placenta, septic abortion
anaphylaxis
trauma, burns
liver failure
pancreatitis
heat stroke, acute hypoxia, blood loss, snake venom

24

Pathophysiology behind DIC?

activation of the coagulation pathway in response to infection, this uses up platelets and coagulation factors so secondary activation of fibrinolysis leading to fibrin degradation products which inhibit fibrin polymerisation, and no platelets left for other clotting

25

Clinical features of DIC?

acutely ill, shock, can be no bleeding or widespread haemorrhage, bleeding from mouth, nose, venepuncture

26

Where in the body is mainly affected by DIC?

skin, brain and kidneys

27

What will investigations show in severe DIC?

prolonged PT, APPT, TT
low fibrinogen level
high FDPs and D dimer due to intense fibrinolytic activity, stimulated by the prescence of fibrin
severe thrombocytopaenia
blood film shows fragmented RBC

28

What will investigations show in mild DIC?

without bleeding
raised FDPs
increased synthesis of coagulation factors and platelets
normal PT, APTT, TT and platelets

29

What is the treatment of DIC?

transfusion of platelet concentrates, FFP, cryoprecipitate and RBCs if bleeding
activated protein c concentrates
NO inhibitors of fibrinolysis as may cause fibrin deposition

30

Complications of DIC?

gangrene from thrombosis

31

Are PT and APTT intrinsic or extrinsic?

PT - extrinsic
APTT - intrinsic

32

What makes up cryprecipitate?

fibrinogen, factor VIII

33

What are the 2 main platelet disorders?

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

34

What is a petechia?

individual purple spots in a purpuric rash

35

What is thrombocytopenia?

a reduced platelet production in the bone marrow, excessive peripheral destruction of platelets or sequestrian in an enlarged spleen

36

What causes immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?

immune destruction of platelets after binding to Fc receptors on macrophages - caused by congenital thrombocytopenia (absent or malfunctioning MK in BM), infiltration of bone marrow (lymphoma, leukiemia, myeloma), reduced TPO production (liver disease), low platelet production (low B12/folate, low TPO, toxins), dysfunctional production of platelets (myelodysplasia)

37

What is the onset like for children and adults in immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?

acute in children
chronic in adults

38

At what age is immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) most common in children?

2-6years

39

What are the symptoms of children immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?

mucocutaneous bleeding, severe bleeding (recent viral infection)

40

Is immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) more common in males or females?

females

41

What other diseases is immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) associated with?

autoimmune illnesses, CLL, solid tumours, HIV

42

Clinical features of immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?

rare major haemorrhage if severe, easy brusing, purpura, epistaxis, menorhagia, bleeding, splenomegaly

43

What will investigations show in immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?

isolated thrombocytopenia, bone marrow examination, platelet autoantibodies, increased or normal megakaryocytes in bone marrow, FBC, peripheral blood smear

44

Treatment of immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) in children?

no treatment unless serious bleeding

45

Treatment of immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) in adults?

1 - oral corticosteroids
IV IgG to raise platelet count
2 - splenectomy
3 - high dose corticosteroids, IV IgG, chemo

anti D immunoglobulin, immunosuppressants, platelet transfusion

46

When would you not have to treat immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) in adults?

when platelets are >30x90^9/L unless they are having surgery

47

What can cause immune thrombocytopenia?

heparin induced, neonatal induced, post transfusion purpura

48

How do neonates cause immune thrombocytopaenia?

due to fetamaternal incompatibility for platelet specific antigens

49

How does blood transfusion cause thrombocytopaenia?

rare, but also occurs in patients previously immunised by blood transfusion of pregnancy

50

Where are platelets destroyed in immune/idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)?

in the spleen

51

What is thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

platelet consumption leads to profound thrombocytopenia

52

Causes of thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

familial or acquired
secondary to cancer, HIV, pregnancy, certain drugs, idiopathic

53

Treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

plasma exchange to increase ADAMTS-13, plasmapheresis, corticosteroids, rituximab

54

How can you monitor treatment in thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

platelet count and serum LDH

55

Where do micro thrombi from thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) usually affect?

kidneys, heart, brain

56

Neurological symptoms caused by thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

stroke, headaches, delirium, bizarre behaviour, hallucination

57

What anaemia occurs in thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia - small blood clots damage RBC causing intravascular haemolysis

58

pathology behind thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

reduced ADAMTS-13 so reduced break down of ultralarge von willebrand factor multimers (ULVWM), so it accumulates, with platelet aggregation and clots in multiple organs

59

What conditions have microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia?

thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP), DIC and HUS

60

complication of thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

AKI

61

clinical features of thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)?

fiond purpura, fever, fluctuating cerebral dysfunction, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, red cell fragmentation, AKI

62

How does thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) affect lactic dehydrogenase levels?

raises them due to haemolysis

63

What can cause over anticoagulation?

warfarin, heparin, rivaroxaban, dabigatran

64

What converts fibrinogen to fibrin?

thrombin

65

Anitdote of rivaroxaban and dabigatran?

none

66

antidote of heparin over anticoagulation?

protamin

67

What is thrombocytosis?

platelet count above 400x10^9/L leading to thrombosis

68

Causes of thrombocytosis?

splenectomy, malignant disease, inflammatory disorders, major surgery, post haemorrhagic, myeloproliferative disorders, iron deficiency

69

Treatment of thrombocytosis?

treat underlying cause, aspirin, hydroxycarbamide to reduce platelet count, dialysis

70

What does the liver produce to stimulate platelet production form magakaryocytes by binding to platelet and MK receptors

thrombopoietin

71

What is the charge on an activated platelets phospholipid surface

negative - to allow coagulation factors to blind

72

What produces thromboxane A2?

arachidonic acid in platelets via COX-1

73

function of thromboxane A2?

induces aggregation and vasoconstriction

74

What conditions consume platelets?

DIC, TTP, HUS, HELELP, major haemorrhage

75

What is heparin induced thrombocytopenia?

development of an IgG antibody against the complex form between platelets and heparin and instead binds to and activates platelets forming thrombosis and platelet consumption, most at risk after unfractioned heparin treatment or cardiac bypass surgery

76

What is Von Willebrand Disease?

deficiency of von villebrand factor leading to impaired platelet adhesions and aggregation

77

Treatment of heparin induced thrombocytopaenia?

alternative anticoagulation, never reexpose to heparin

78

How does heparin induced thrombocytopaenia present?

sharp fall in platelets 5-10 days after starting heparin treatment

79

What are the 2 types of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors?

thienopyridines and non thienopyridines

80

Types of thienopyridines?

clopidogrel - hepatic CYP2c19 conversion into active metabolite 2 step process

prasugrel - single CYP step therefore faster transformation into active metabolite, rapid action but greater risk of bleeding

81

Types on non theinopyridines?

ticagrelor - reversibly binding oral P2Y12 anatgonist, does not require metabolic conversion to an active form, so faster onset of action

82

Example of GP IIbIIIa inhibitors?

tirofiban - non peptide tyrosine derivative, rapid onset, rapid reversibility of anti platelet effect

83

Life span on platelets?

7-10 days

84

shape of platelets?

disc shape to allow them to flow close to endothelium

85

How are old platelets removed?

phagocytosed by splenic macrophages in red pulp

86

Function of thrombopoietin?

decrease in platelets, cause increase in TPO to increase binding to MK and platelet receptors to increase platelet production

87

Platelet physiology?

platelets adhere to damaged endothelium via collagen and vWF. Binding of collagen stimulates cytoskeleton shape change for increase in SA, releases ADP, fibrinogen, thrombin and Ca2+ from platelet granules. Aggregation of platelets by fibrin, coagulation factors bind.

88

What chromosome if vWF gene on?

12

89

What are the 4 types of vWF disease?

1 - poor quantitative deficiency (autosomal dominant)
2 - qualitative abnormality (autosomal dominant)
3 - near complete deficiency (autosomal recessive)
4 - type normandy

90

Clinical features of type 1 and 2 vWF disease?

bleeding post trauma or surgery, epistaxis and menorrhagia

91

Clinical features of type 3 vWF disease?

severe bleeding but rare joint and muscle bleed

92

Treatment of vWF disease?

desmopressin, plasma derived factor VIII concentration that contain vWF treat bleeding and surgery, cryoprecipitate

93

function of vWF?

binds to GpIb receptor on platelets to subendothelial collagen and transport of factor VIII

94

Causes of vit K insufficiency?

warfarin, malabsorption, alcholism, CF, CKI, cholestatic disease

95

Symptoms of vit K insufficiency?

inrease PT and PTT, bruising, haematuria, GI bleeding

96

Treatment of vit K insufficiency?

IV phylomenadione, vit supplements, vit k rich foods

97

What is haemophilia?

X linked recessive bleeding and bruising disorder

98

What is haemophilia A?

factor VIII deficiency, normal vWF

99

Clinical features of haemophilia A?

mild - bleeding after injury or surgery later in life
moderate - severe bleeding post injury, occasional spontaneous bleeds
severe - frequent spontaneous bleeding into joints and muscles lead to deformity

100

What are the factor VIII levels in haemophilia A?

normal = 50-150iu/dL
mild = >5
moderate = 1-5
severe =

101

What will investigations show in haemophilia A?

low factor VIII, coagulation factor assay, increased PTT, normal PT, increased APPT

102

Treatment of haemophilia A?

educate, counselling, testing, avoid anticoagulants
mild - desmopressin
severe - require IV replacement with plasma concentration factor VIII

103

What is the half life for factor VIII and therefore how many time is replacement necessary?

12 hours, twice a day

104

What complications can haemophilia A lead to?

patients immune system may start to reject the IV plasma factor VIII

joint destruction by recurrent bleeding

105

Which is more common haemophilia A or B?

A

106

What is haemophilia B?

factor IX deficiency (xmas disease)

107

Treatment of haemophilia B?

educate, counselling, testing, avoid anticoagulants, desmopressin, IV infusion of factor IX, gene therapy

108

What is the half life of factor IX and how often is a given in haemophilia B?

18 hours, twice a week

109

Complications of haemophilia B?

joint destruction by recurrent bleeding

110

What is malaria?

an infectious disease caused by parasitic Plasmodium, spread by the female Anopheles mosquito

111

What are the 4 species of the plasmodium infection?

plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium virax, plasmodium ovale, plasmodium malariae

112

Which plasmodium species causes a more severe illness?

plasmodium falciparum

113

Which plasmodium species is most likely to relapse after many years?

plasmodium virax and plasmodium ovale

114

Symptoms of malaria?

fatigue, night sweats, flu like symptoms, fever of 41, diarrhea, nausea, vmiting, anaemia, splenomegaly, siezures

115

Complications of malaria?

cerebral malaria, anaemia, DIC, blackwater fever, jaundice, splenic rupture, tertian fever, quartan fever

116

What is Tertian fever?

fever that recurs every second day for 48 hours

117

What is Quartan fever?

fever that recurs every fourth day

118

What does cerebral malaria cause?

decreased consciousness, confusion, convulsions, coma

119

What is blackwater fever?

widespread intravascular haemolysis causing dark urine

120

If a patient presents with fever and foreign travel, what should you think of?

malaria

121

When does mortality increase with malaria?

if less than 3 years or pregnant

122

When do malaria symptoms usually present?

within a month of bite

123

What is used for malaria diagnosis?

thick and thin blood films - look at the number of infected cells to detect level of parasitaemia

124

What medications are given for malaria prophylaxis?

atovaquone with proguanil or quinine with doxycycline

125

What does the treatment of malaria depend on?

type of malaria, severity and where is was caught

126

What medications are used to treat malaria?

atovaquone with proguanil or quinine with doxycycline

127

contraindications for atovaquone-proguanil?

pregnant/breast feeding, severe kidney problems

128

Side effects of atovaquone-proguanil?

stomach upset, headaches, skin rash, mouth ulcers, expensive

129

Why are Chloroquine and proguanil not prescribed for malaria as much now?

largely ineffective against plasmodium falciparum, but good in places where that species is less common

130

Investigations for malaria?

bloods
blood film - parasites on Giemsa stained thick/thin film
renal time PER
antigen detection kits
lumbar puncture to exclude bacterial infection

131

What disease protects against malaria?

sickle cell disease (and lacking the Duffy antigen)

132

What malaria species causes anaemia and hepatosplenomegaly?

p.vivax, p.ovale

133

How does a mosquito infect a human with malaria?

female mosquito is infected after taking a blood meal containing gametocytes and the protozoa develop in the mosquito and the sporozoites migrate to the salivary glands so inoculate a human when biten

134

Where do sporozoites migrate to in the mosquito in malaria?

salivary glands

135

What happens to sporozoites once inoculated in a new human host?

travel to liver, infect hepatocyts, and multiply then from schizonts and then merozoites, the hepatocytes then rupture so merozoites released into the blood stream, continue to replicate until RBC ruptures which can then be transferred to feeding mosquito

136

How could vaccines prevent malaria?

maintain high antibody levels to prevent infection

can prevent transfer

can prevent progression of disease

137

What drug inhibits haem metabolism?

lumfantrine

138

What drug inhibits falciporum sarcoplasmic?

endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase

139

What drug inhibits haem polymerase?

chloroquine, and quinine

140

What drug inhibits plasmodial protein synthesis?

doxycycline

141

What measure help prevent malaria?

mosquito eradication, bed nets, insect repellent, antimalarial prophylaxis

142

Management of uncomplicated malaria?

chloroquine
artemisnin based drug
primaquine to eradicate hepatic hyponozoiles to prevent relapse
artemisinin based combination therapy

143

Management of severe malaria?

IV artesunate, ICU for ventilation, blood tranfusion, monitor fluid balance, treat complications e.g. hypoglycaemia

144

What is hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly?

exaggerated immune response to repeated infections causing anaemia, massive splenomegaly, elevated IgM levels

145

What is anaemia?

reduced red cell mass w/wo reduced Hb concentration

146

What is the normal Hb conc for male and female?

male = 13.1-16.6g/dL
female = 11-14.7d/dL

147

What is a normal MCV?

82-96fl

148

Life span of RBC?

120 days

149

Where are RBC produced and removed?

produced in bone marrow, removed in spleen, liver, bone marrow and blood loss

150

What are the 3 sizes of RBC?

microcytic
normocytic
macrocytic

151

What does anaemia cause?

reduced O2 transport, tissue hyposxia, increase tissue perfusion, increase O2 transfer to tissues

152

What investigations show be done for anaemia?

WBC. platelet, reticulocute, blirubin, blood film, ferritin, transferritin

153

Anaemia symptoms?

tired, malaise, reduced exercise tolerance, SOB, angina, claudication, symptoms of underlying cause, palpitations

154

Signs of anaemia?

pallow, pale mucous membranes and palmar creases, glossitis, angular stomatitis, kylonichia

155

What is the most common form of anaemia?

microcytic

156

what causes microcytic anaemia?

iron deficiency, chronic disease, sideroblastic anemia, thalassaemia

157

What foods have iron in?

vegetables and grains

158

Where is haem iron absorbed?

proximal intestine via the intestinal haem transporter HCP1 in the duodenum (upregulated in iron deficiency and pregnancy)

159

Is haem iron or non haem iron more rapidly absorbed?

haem

160

What is haem used for?

Hb production

161

What causes lack of iron?

use more, lose more, lack of it in diet, bleeding

162

What is the usual serum iron level?

13-32umol/L

163

How is iron transported in the body?

2 ferric ions bound to transferrin, normally only 1/3 saturated, iron then binds to erythoblasts and reticulocytes in marrow and removed

164

How much iron is stored in the HB?

2/3rds

165

When is other iron stored?

reticuloendothelial cells, hepatocytes and skeletal muscle cells and plasma

166

How is iron lost?

faeces, urine, sweat, menstruation

167

What conditions cause an increase in iron?

hereditary haemochromatosis (mutation in HFE gene) and secondary haemochromatosis (iron overload from blood transfusion)

168

What causes iron deficiency?

blood loss from GI or uterus, hookworm, poor diet

169

Clinical features of iron deficiency?

brittle nails, spoon shaped nails, atrophy of papillae of tongue, angular stomatitis, brittle hair, dysphagia and glossitis

170

What will investigations show in iron deficiency anaemia?

microcytic hypochromic RBC, decreased iron, increase binding sites, decreased serum ferritin, increased serum soluble transferrin receptors

171

What is the treatment of iron deficient anaemia?

treat the cause, ferrous sulphate 200mg, treat for 3 months post resolving

172

Side effects of ferrous sulphate medication?

constipation

173

What chronic diseases cause anaemia?

TB, Crohn's, RA (inflammatory disease)

174

How does chronic disease cause anaemia?

high levels of hepadin, lack of erythropoetin and renal disease cause decrease of iron from bone marrow to erythroblasts, inadequate erythropietin response to the anaemia and decreased RBC survuval

175

What is normocytic anaemia?

seen in anaemia of chronic disease, endocrine disorders and some haemotological disorders

176

What are the two types of macrocytic anaemias?

megaloblastic and non megaloblastic depending on bone marrow findings

177

What is a megaloblastic anaemia?

presence of erythroblasts with delayed maturation due to defective DNA synthesis in bone marrow

178

What causes folate deficiency?

poor intake, excessive utilization, malabsorption

179

What are the clinical findings of folate deficiency?

asymptomatic, anaemia symptoms, symptoms of underlying cause, glossitis

180

What investigations are done for folate deficiency?

serum and red cell folate

181

What is the treatment of folate deficiency?

5mg of folic acid/day to replace body stores

prophylactic folic acid if planning pregnancy

182

What is the treatment of B12 deficiency?

hydroxocobalamin 1000ug IM, oral B12 mg/day

183

What are B12 and folate used for?

DNA synthesis

184

What does B12 and folate deficiency cause?

pancytopenia

185

Where is folic acid broken down?

upper GI

186

What is the form of folic acid in the body?

methyl THF monoglutamate in the serum

187

In what foods in folate found?

green vegetables

188

In what foods in B12 found?

meat, eggs, fish

189

Where is B12 stored?

liver

190

Where does macrocytic anaemia manifest first?

bone marrow

191

Causes of macrocytic anaemia?

liver disease, alcohol, hypothyroid, B12 and folate deficiency

192

Where is B12 absorbed?

terminal ileum

193

What is the most common cause of B12 deficient anaemia?

pernicious anameia

194

What is pernicious anaemia?

an autoimmune disorder where there is atrophic gastritis with loss of parietal cells, causing decreases intrinsic factor and B12

195

In who is pernicious anaemia most common in?

fair haired, blue eyes, type a blood, females, over 60 (rarely congenital in children with early onset)

196

what two antibodies are seen in pernicious anaemia?

parietal cell antibodies and intrinsic factor antibodies

197

What are the 2 types of intrinsic antibodies?

inhibits intrinsic factor binding to B12

inhibits B12 intinsic factor complex to receptor site on ileum

198

What are the parietal cells and chief cells replaced with in pernicious anaemia?

mucin secreting cells

199

Treatment of pernicious anaemia?

corticosteroid therapy

IM hydroxycobalamin

200

Clinical features of pernicious anaemia?

lemon/yellow colouring, glossitis, red tongue, angular stomatitis, nerulogical changes

201

Clinical features of pernicious anaemia in serious cases?

symmetrical paraethesiae in fingers and toes, early loss of vibration sense and proprioception, progressive weakness and ataxia

202

What do investigations show in pernicious anaemia?

megablastomic, increased serum bilirubin, increased LDH, serum methylmalonic acid, homocysterine, decreased serum vit b12, increased serum folate levels, megaloblasts in bone marrow, low Hb, wcc and platelets

203

What is the absorption test called to find the cause of pernicious anaemia and what does it involve?

Schilling test - oral radioactive B12 and IM non radio-active IM

normal = >10% of oral dose in urine

abnormal if not - so redo with intrinsic factor capsules, if it is normalised, then it is pernicious anaemia

if still abnormal then lesion in terminal ileum or bacterial overgrowth

204

What is macrocytosis without megablastic change?

raised MCV with normoblastic

205

What is the cause of macrocytosis without megablastic change?

pregnancy, alcohol, liver disease, drugs, reticulocytosis, hyperthyroidism, some haemotological disorders, cold agglutinin due to autoagglutinations of red cells

206

What will investigations show in macrocytosis without megablastic change?

normal B12 and folate
increased lipid deposition in red cell membrane and increased in reticulocytes leading to increased MCV

207

What is aplastic anaemia?

pancytopenia with hypocellularity (aplasia) of the bone marrow

208

Cause of aplastic anaemia?

immune mechanisms, activated cytotoxic T cells in bone marrow and blood, cytotoxic drugs, NSAIDs, inherited fancous anaemia, aplastic anaemia, transient eythroblastopenia, parvovirus B19 infection, malignancy

209

Why can't bone marrow repopulate in aplastic anaemia?

reduction in pluripotential stem cells and a fault in the remaining ones

210

What can aplastic anaemia lead to?

myelodysplasia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, AML

211

Clinical features of aplastic anaemia?

anemia, bleeding, infection

212

What will investigations show in aplastic anaemia?

pancytopenia, virtual abscence of reticulocytes, hypocellular bone marrow with increased fat spaces, negative coombs and normal bilirubin, absent red cell precusors on bone marrow examination

213

Treatment of aplastic anaemia?

steroids, supportive care and treatment to accelerate bone marrow recovery, transfusions, prevent infection, bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy

214

What is haemolytic anaemia?

caused by increased destruction of RBCs in the macrophages of the bone marrow, liver and spleen, normal or increased RBC production

215

Is haemolytic anaemia more common in intra or extravascular?

extravascular

216

What is the difference between intra and extravascular haemolytic anaemia?

e - RBCs are emoved from circulation by macrophages

i - RBCs destroyed in circulation and haemoglobin is liberated to be reabsorbed by renal tubules and broken down and deposited as haemosiderin

217

What can be used to estimate RBC survival?

IV 51Cr labelled red cells

218

What does pernicious anaemia lead to?

achlorydia and b12 malabsorption

219

Congenital causes of haemolytic anaemia?

heriditary spherocytosis, sickle cell disease, thalassaemia, sideroblastic anaemia, enzyme disorders

220

Acquired causes of haemolytic anaemia?

immune autoantibodies against RBC, mechanical

221

What is hereditary spherocytosis?

RBC are sphere shaped, varies from mild-severe

222

Symptoms of hereditary spherocytosis?

anaemia, jaundice, enlarged spleen, gall stones, leg ulcers

223

Treatment of hereditary spehrocytosis?

folic acid and spelnectomy

transfusion or steroids in aplastic crisis

224

What is sideroblastic anaemia?

a ringed sideroblast, caused by congenital of leukaemias due to not being able to incorporate iron into Hb

225

What is the treatment of sideroblastic anaemia?

treat if symptomatic, RBC transfusion with iron chelation therapy, avoid alcohol, reduce vit C intake as it can increase iron absorption

226

What do investigations show in sideroblastic anaemia?

high serum iron and transferritin saturation

227

What are the 4 types of normocytic anaemia?

acute haemorrhage, anaemia of chronic disease, aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia

228

What do investigations show in acute haemorrhage anaemia?

normocytic normochromic anaemia, increased reticulocytes, normal bilirubin

229

pathophysiology of anaemia of chronic disease?

IL-6 are increasing hepcidin, causing a decreased response to EPO and decreased production over time

230

What are the 4 types of haemolytic anaemia?

membrane defect - hereditary spherocytosis
enzyme defect - G6PD deficiency
haemoglobinopathy - sickle cell disease, thalassaemia
immune haemolytic anaemia

231

Features of haemolytic anaemia?

increased serum unconjugated bilirubin, increased urinary urobilinogen, increased faecal stercobilinogen, spelomegaly, reticulocytosis, expansion of bone marrow

232

What is the consequence of sphere shaped RBC in hereditary spherocytosis?

they are more rigid and less deformable so unable to pass through the splenic microcirculation so have a shortened lifespan

233

What do investigations show in hereditary spherocytosis?

anaemia, spherocytes on blood film, eviden haemolysis, increased lysisity, negative antiglobulin test

234

What is hereditary elliptocytosis?

red cells are elliptical from protein deficiency leading to weakness of horizontal protein interaction and membrane defect

235

What is hereditary stomaocytosis?

When RBC have pale central area appearing slit like, due to membrane defect or excess alcohol

236

What is thalassaemia?

autosomal inherited recessive condition producing microcytic aaemia due to problem in globin chain production which alters Hb synthesis

237

What is B thalassaemia?

mutation in b globin chain on chromosome 11 which causes an increase in globin production

238

What are the 3 types of b thalassaemia?

minor (heterozygous)
intermediate (homozygous b and a)
major (cooleys anaemia)

239

Symptoms of B thalassaemia minor?

asymptomatic, mild/absent anaemia, increase in HbA2 and HbF, Carner state

240

Symptoms of B thalassaemia intermediate?

moderate anaemia, no transfusions, splenomegaly and bone deformities, recurrent leg ulcers, gallstones and infections

241

Symptoms of B thalassaemia major?

severe anaemia, cranial bossing due to extra medullary haematopoiesis, bone marrow expansion in hand, failure to thrive and recurrent bacterial infection

242

Is B thalassaemia mutation or deletion?

point mutation

243

What is A thalassaemia?

an a globin gene mutattion causing gene deletion and a globin synthesis, results in excess B globin production

244

On what chromosome is the mutation in A thalassaemia?

chromosome 16

245

Is A thalassaemia mutation of deletion?

deletion

246

What is the effect of each deletion in A thalassaemia?

1 - no significant anaemia
2 - microcytosis w/wo mild anaemia
3 - HbH disease - it does not carry O2 and precipitate everything in erythroblasts leading to moderate anaemia and splenomegaly
4 - has no a chain and only y4 so leads to still born (Barts hydrops fetalis)

247

What will investigations show in A thalassaemia?

A thalassaemia on blood film, microcytic, hypochromic anaemia, decrease MCV and MCH, iron and ferritin normal, Hb electrophoresis shows increases HbA2 and increased HbF, high performance liquid chromatography, x ray show bone abnormalities

248

Complications of A thalassaemia?

galls stones, iron overload, splenomegaly, increased risk of infection, HF, arrhythmias, bone abnormalities (cranial bossing)

249

What is HbH?

4 B chains, low HbA and Y4 and reduced HbA2

250

Treatment of thalassaemia?

education, genetic counselling, based on symtpoms, transfusions if Hb

251

pathophysiology of B thalassaemia?

homozygous state, point mutation in B glbin gene, decrease in B globin chain production, excess of a chains, causing decrease in HbA and increase in HbA2 and HbF, leading to haemolysis

heterozygous state (carrier) is asymptomatic or mild anaemia, increases HbA2

252

What is G6PD deficiency?

a decrease in G6PD, causing reduced glutathione and acute oxidant induced haemolysis from drugs, surgery and infection, broad beans

253

What do investigations show in G6PD deficiency?

decreased G6PD enzyme assay levels, increased bite cells, blister cells and heinz bodies on blood film, reticulocytes, evident haemolysis, G6PD normal immediately after attck

254

Treatment of G6PD deficiency?

avoid precipitants, blood transfusion, treat underlying cause

255

Symptoms of G6PD deficiency?

acute drug induced haemolysis, favism, chronic haemolytic anaemia, neonatal jaundic, infections and acute illness caused by rapid intravascular haemolysis

256

What is sickle cell anaemia?

HbS is caused by mutations of adenine to thymine, changing a B globin chain, in sickle cell anaemia, both b genes are abnormal, trait is just one chain abnormal

257

At what age does sickle cell anaemia develop?

6 months old

258

pathology behind sickle cell anaemia?

deoxygenated HbS molecules are insoluble, polymerizable under deoxygenated conditions and eventually become sickle like in appearance becoming irreversible due to dehydration from K+ leaving the RBC, decreased RBC survival and impairs passage through vessels leading to blockage

259

Cause of sickle cell anaemia?

infection, dehydration, cold, acidosis, hypoxia

260

What are the 3 types of sickle cell anaemia?

homozygous HbSS (most severe)
combined heterozygosity HbSC (intermediate)
heterozygous HbAS (no symptoms)

261

Symptoms of sickle cell anaemia?

acute pain in hand and feet from small vessel vaso occlusion, severe pain in bones, fever, pulmonary hypertension, anaemia, bone marrow aplasia, acute chest syndrome, splenic sequestrain and painful enlargement, splenic pooling of RBC and hypovalaemia, liver sequestrain

(heterozygous individuals have no symtpoms except for when in hypoxic enviroment)

262

What do investigations show in sickle cell anaemia?

increased reticulocytes, hyposplenism, turbid appearance due to HbS, No HbA, parents have sickle cell trait, electrophoresis identifies individuals wthether HbAS or HbSS

263

Treatment of sickle cell anaemia?

avoid/treat precipitating factors, supportive therapy with IV fluids and analgesia, o2 and antibiotics, folic acid, penicillin, blood transfusions, splenectomy, stem cell transplantation, hydroxycarbamide to increase HbF concentrations and reduces pain acute chest syndrome, counselling, prognosis varies

264

Long term problems of sickle cell anaemia?

delayed growth, development and menstruation, infections in tissues, leg ulcers, cardiomegaly, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, pigment stones, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, background retinopathy, impaired placental blood flow causing abortion and intrauterine growth retardation, priapism (painful erection), transient ischaemic attack, stroke, fits

265

What is sickle cell trait?

one abnormal b globin chain

266

symptoms of sickle cell trait?

no symptoms, extreme cases cause anorexia

267

Investigations of sickle cell trait?

60% HbA, 40%HbS, blood count, film nromal, positive sickle test, Hb electrophoresis

268

Which is more serious, sickle cell trait or sickle cell aneamia?

sickle cell anaemia

269

What does a combination of TB and sickle cell trait resemble?

sickle cell anaemia

270

symptoms of HbE heterozygotes?

asymptomatic, normal Hb, microcytic red cells causing mild microcytic anaemia

271

Symptoms of HbE and B thalassaemia?

causes variable anaemia, can be severe as B thalassaemia major

272

Who would be offered prenatal screening?

for offspring of patients who have both B thalassaemia or sickle cell trait as 25% will have either of these, involves counselling, pregnent women screened for anaemia, partners should be tested, foetal DNA

273

What kind of inheritance is sickle cell anaemia?

autosomal recessive

274

What is vaso occlusive crisis?

triggered by hypoxia, infection, dehydration

coagulation in the microvasculature lead to CNS infarction, breathing difficulties, bone pain

275

Treatment of vaso occlusive crisis from sickle cell anaemia?

hydroxycarbamide - breaks down cells that are prone to sickle and therefore reduced the frequency of vasoocclusive attacks

276

What are the 4 types of leukaemia?

AML, ALL, CML, CLL

277

In who is ALL most common?

children

278

In who is CML most common?

elderly

279

What is the general treatment of leukaemia?

chemotherapy (induction, consolidation and maintenance), bone marrow transplant for poor prognosis or relapse

280

What is leukaemia?

rare neoplasm of blood or bone marrow, occuring at any age

281

What are the complications of leukaemia?

death, increased infection risk, haemorrhage, pulmonary intracranial, depression

282

Symptoms of anaemia?

breathlessness, fatigue, angina, claudication, pallow, cardiac flow murmur

283

Symptoms of neutropenia?

infections, fever, mouth ulcers

284

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia?

bleeding, bruising, petechiae, gum bleeding, fundal haemorrhage

285

What are blast cells?

immature precursor cells

286

What are myeloblasts?

immature precursor of myeloid cells

287

What are lymphoblasts?

immature precursors of lymphoblasts

288

In who are blast cells seen?

not in normal individuals, they are suggestive of chronic disease or leukaemia beginning to transform into an acute disease

289

What is diagnostic for AML on microscopy?

Auer rods

290

What are smudge cells?

lymphocytes that lack an identifiable cytoplasmic membrane and nucleus

291

When do smudge cells develop?

develop due to fragile lymphocytes in CLL

292

On what chromosome is the BCR gene?

22

293

On what chromosome is the ABL gene?

9

294

What is the Philadelphia chromosome?

contains ABL and BCR gene, it is 22- chromosome

295

What causes ALL?

lymphoblasts are over produced in the marrow, immature lymohocytes are produced and inhibition of other white blood cells due to lack of space and nutrients so there are less of them in the blood, and lymphoblasts infiltrate other tissues

296

Risk factors for ALL?

downs syndrome, ionising radiation, pregnancy, benzenes, environmental triggers, with genetic susceptibility

297

symptoms of ALL?

reflect the underproduction of healthy RBCs, platelet and WBCs

general fatigue, weakness, dizziness, frequent fever, injection, weight loss, bruising, bone pain, SOB, purpura, night sweats

298

How is ALL diagnosed?

exclude other causes e.g. coagulation to exclude DIC

blood smears show blasts in peripheral blood

csf sample shows if there has been invasion into brain and CNS

medical imaging shows invasion into other tissues

cardiac function for planning therapy

299

How is ALL classified?

B or T cell lineage, association with philadelphia chromosome

300

Treatment of ALL?

induce remission with dexamthasone, vincristine, anthracycline antibiotics and cyclophosphamide

maintain with methotrexte, mercaptopurine, cytarabine, hydrocortisone

continued oral/IV chemo at less frequent rate

immunotherapy/marrow transplant

301

What is the survival and prognosis for ALL?

5yr survival is 85%, prognosis based on age, race, gender, genotype

302

What is leukaemia chemotherapy treatment stages based on?

remission induction, consolidation/intensification and maintenance therapy

303

What is the function of the remission stage in ALL chemo?

acheieves absence of blasts in peripheral blood and

304

What is the function of consolidation in ALL chemo?

further reduction of cancerous cells

305

What is the function of maintenance therapy in ALL chemo?

killing any residual cells not killed by previous therapy, lasts years

306

Where about on your body can radiotherapy be used?

painful bony areas

307

In who is CLL mainly seen?

>60

308

Cause of CLL?

gradual accumulation of B lymphocytes from blood/bone marrow and lymph glands

309

What are the symptoms of CLL?

asymptomatic, bone marrow failure, non tender lymphadenopathy, malaise, weight loss, night sweats, anaemia, fever, recurrent infection

310

How do lymph nodes appear in CLL?

enlarged, rubbery, soft tender lymph nodes, slowly enlarge over time

311

How do ALL and CLL symptoms differ?

similar but CLL may be asymptomatic and diagnosis can be by chance

312

What is CLL prognosis like?

1/3 progress slowly, 1/3 progress rapidly, 1/3 never progress

313

What will investigations show in CLL?

positive ZAP-70 marker (worse prognosis), decreased Hb and plateletsm increased WBC, lymphocytosis, small lymphocytes, lymphocyte infiltration

314

Treatment of CLL?

chlorambucil, fludarabine, rituximab, prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, monoclonal antibodies, transplant, targeted therapy, transfusion

315

What is the most common leukaemia in adults?

AML

316

Symptoms of AML?

same as ALL, with hepatosplenomegaly and gum hypertrophy, bone marrow failure, malaise, weight loss, night sweats

317

What is the diagnosis for AML?

auer rods, blood film, bone marrow and lymph node biopsy, immunotyping, genetic, FAB classification

318

Risk factors of AML?

myeloproliferative disease, alkylating agents, ionising radiation exposure, downs syndrome

319

What is AML treatment if younger than 60?

chemo w/anthracycline and cytarabine or methotraxate - given 5 cycles of 1 week blcoks

prophylatic cover for bacteria, viruses and fungi as infection is a major risk

320

What is AML treatment if older than 60?

palliative anthracycline, cytarabine or mitoxantrone

bone marrow transplant if poor prognosis

321

Which leukemia has the strongest association with the philadelphia chromosome?

CML

322

clinical features of CML?

bone marrow failure, gout, bruising, hepatosplenomegaly, malaise, weight loss, night sweats, pallor, extramoddallar, soft tissue leukaemic diposit chlooma

323

What is the Philadelphia chromosome?

t(9;22) (in 80% of CML cases) forms bcr-abl fusion gene

324

What do investigations show in CML?

neutrophilia, mature myeloid precursors, increased basophils and eosinophils, decreased Hb, increased WBC

bone marrow aspiration shows increased cellularity, and increased myeloid precursors

325

Risk factors of CML?

ionising radiation exposure

326

What is the main treatment for CML?

imatinib

327

Treatment of CML?

imatinub

328

What is the difference between leukaemia and lymphoma?

leukaemia - bone marrow proliferative disorder (myeloid of lymphoid lineage)

lymphoma - neoplastic disease of mature lymphocyes in lymphoid tissue - solid tumour

329

What happens in cells in acute and chronic stages?

acute - excess of blast cells, multipotent cells, rapidly dividing causing acute onset

chronic - cells tend to be more mature and have a more functional role, less rapidly dividing, so less acute onset of disease

330

Which leukaemia is associated with downs syndrome?

ALL

331

Why does hepatomegaly and splenomegaly occur in ALL?

higher basal metabolism so hep

excess defective cells have to go to spleen to be destroyed so sple

332

What causes marrow failure in ALL?

replacement of marrow cells with blast cells

333

What are the 3 stages of CML?

chronic (asymptomatic), accelerated (bleeding and splenomegaly) and blast phase (bone pain and AL signs)

334

What are the two types of lymphoma?

Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's

335

What are B symptoms?

temperature of >38, weight loss >10% of body weight in last 6 months, symptoms due to enlarge mass e.g. cough

336

What is Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

malignancies of B cell or T cell origin, and it is classified by the stage or maturation

337

What 2 things can lymphoid progenitor cells become in the bone marrow?

Precursor T cell of precursor B cell

338

In Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma, are maligancies of B cell or T cell more common?

B cell (80%)

339

Where do precursor T cells mature to become thymocytes?

In the thymus

340

Why are T cells double negative?

Because they can become CD8+ or CD4+

341

Where do naive T cells become activated?

In the lymph node

342

What enzymes help precursor B cells undergo VDJ recombination of light and heavy chains to become naive B cell?

RAG1/RAG2

343

What do naive B cells have?

IgM

344

Where do naive B cells travel to?

lymph node

345

What happens when a B cell comes across an antigen?

Phagocytoses the antigen and presents it on its surface until it comes across a T cell

346

What happens in co stimulation of T and B cells?

naive CD4 T cell stimulates the B cell and vice versa to produce activated T cell and B cell

347

What do T cell cytokines cause the B cell to do?

proliferate into centroblasts, undergo somatic hyper mutation by the AID enzyme, allowing point mutation so there are many centroblast with different IgM antibodies as their variable regions have slightly changed, so there can be increased or decreased affinity to that antigen

348

Where do centroblasts move through after somatic hyper mutation?

through the germinal center to where there are many follicular dendritic cells which are presenting many antigens on its surface, also T helper cells there, they become centrocytes

349

What do centrocytes need to survive and mature and how do they get this?

cytokines - so they sample the antigens from the dendritic cells using their specific IgM antibodies to then present to the T helper follicular cell to proliferate and differentiate

350

What happens to centrocytes that have a decreased affinity for the antigens?

they will die through apoptosis

351

What can centrocytes proliferate into?

memory B cell or undergo class switching plasmoblast which can become plasma cells that secrete antibodies

352

What is the process called that allows B cells to change IgM into IgE, IgG etc/?

class switching

353

What are thymic B cells?

B cells that reside in the thymus

354

What is lymphoma?

tumour of the lymph from B and T cell development - heterogenous, with proliferation of lymph tissue

355

How do lymphomas differ?

different cellular origin, morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenic and molecular abnormalities and response to treatment and prognosis

356

How common is Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

6th most common cancer, increasing prevalence

357

Risk factors for Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

family history, genetic polymorphism (SCID), immunological autoimmune disease, virus, HTLV-1, H.pylori, HHV-8, HBV+EBV, HIV, peticides, herbicides and smoking

358

What lymphomas can T cells in the thymus give rise to?

precursor T cell neoplasm

359

What lymphoma can T cells in lymph node give rise to?

peripheral T cell neoplasm

360

When can T cell lymphomas arise?

during genetic rearrangement of the T cell lymphoma and during positive and negative selection in the thymus which can then lead to precursor of peripheral T cell neoplasms

361

Why are B cell lymphomas more common then T cell?

as they go through more genetic changes

362

What lymphomas can B cells give rise to?

mantle cell lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, Germinal centre B like lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, activated B cell like DLBCL, primary mediastinal DLBCL

363

What is the prognosis like for germinal center DLBCL?

60% 5yr survival

364

What is the prognosis like for activated DLBCL?

35% %yr survival

365

What are the most common Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

DLBCL and follicular

366

What neoplasms can plasma cells give rise to?

multiple myeloma - caused by too many plasma cells being produce

367

How do lymphomas arise?

translocation of chromosomes and genetic mutations during rearrangement

368

What chromosomes are translocated in lymphoma?

Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 genes

369

What mutations and amplifications occur in lymphoma?

p53, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, MYC

370

How do Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma present?

painless lymphadenopathy, unintentional weight loss, fever, dyspnoea, hepatosplenomegaly, lymph node mass

371

What is the Ann Arbor classification?

for lymphoma classification from lymph node biopsy

1-single lymph node region, lymphoid structure or extranodal site
2-two or more lymph node regions one side of diaphragm
3-two or more lymph node regions both side of diaphragm
4-diffuse or disseminated involvement of on of more extralymphatic organs

372

What is the main diagnostic difference seen in Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

Hodgkin's Lymphoma has Reed Sternberd cells

373

What is the treatment of Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

R-CHOP regimin

cisplarn, etoposide, methotrexate

374

What does R-CHOP stand for?

rituximab
cyclophosphamide
hydroxydaunomycin
oncovin
prednisolone

375

What is the second most common Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma and when does it mainly occur?

follicular lymphoma - in mid-late life - has bone marrow infiltration

376

Treatment of follicular lymphoma?

field megavoltage irradiation, chemotherapy, R-CHOP, radioimmunotherapy, myeloblative consolidation in younger patients, HSCT

377

Which is the most common Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma in children?

Burkitt's

378

What are the 3 types of Burkitt's?

endemic (EBV associated), sporadic (30% EBV related), AIDs related

379

Which is the most rapidly proliferative lymphoma?

Burkitt's

380

How does Burkitt's lymphoma present?

rapidly gorwing jaw tumour, abdominal mass with bone marrow involvement, mass in CNS, kidney, testis

381

In who is DLBCL most common?

adults, male >female

382

What prognostic index fatcors decrease prognosis in DLBCL?

>60, stage 3/4, high serum lactate dehydrogenase level, performance status 2, 1 or more extended site

383

Treatment of DLBCL?

allopurinol, RCHOP, chemoimmunotherapy, interum PET scanning, intrathecal methotrexate, palliative chemo and radiation, peripheral blood stem cell harvest and autograft

384

In who is mantle cell lymphoma most common?

late life, male >female

385

Treatment of lymphoblastic lymphoma?

plasmapheresis to reduce paraprotein, blood transfusions and if young bone marrow transplant

386

What is primary extranodal lymphoma?

lesion or mass at site, normally in CNS, stomach and skin

387

What is primary CNS lymphoma usually seen?

DLBCL in immuno-competent and immuno-suppressed

388

What is primary gastric lymphoma?

extanodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa associated tissue or DLBCL on a background of MALT lymphoma

389

symptoms of primary gastric lymphoma?

gastric ulceration, mass, indigestion, bleeding, endoscopic biopsy

390

Treatment of primary gastric lymphoma?

regular endoscopys, heliobactor eradication therapy, irradiation to gastric bed, chemoimmunotherapy

391

What lymphoma can be T or B cell?

primary cutaneous lymphoma, both arise singly and multiply in the skin and persue a very long natural history

392

Complications of lymphoma?

increased infection risk, recurrence and metastases, chemo complications, neuro complications

393

How do Reed Steinburg cells appear and what causes them in Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

giant cells, owl appearance

due to eosinophilic inclusions in the nuclei

394

What are popcorn cells?

small cell with hyperlobulated nuclues and small nucleoli, a variant of reed steinberg cells

395

When does Hodgkin's Lymphoma usually occur?

young adults and elderly

396

Symptoms of Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

B symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, alcohol induced pain, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, enlarged non tender rubbery nodal

397

Causes of Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

male, exotoxin exposure, infection with EBV, immunosuppresed, previous infection with mononucleosis HL

398

Do systemic symptoms suggest Hodgkin's or non Hodgkins Lymphoma?

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

399

What is the staging of Hodgkin's Lymphoma called?

Cotsworld staging

400

Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

educate, macmillan, chemo (ABVD) following by radiotherapy

401

Who does G6PD deficiency mainly affect?

african, middle east, mediterranean, X linked so male, but women can also be affected

402

How is G6PD deficiency diagnosed?

by a screening test for NADPH

403

What is G6PD deficiency crisis characterised by?

haemolysis, jaundice and anaemia

404

Important drug interactions in G6PD deficiency?

primaquine, sulphonamides, nitrofurantoin, quinolones, dapsone

405

In who does parovirus occur in?

children in epidemics (also called slapped cheek syndrome)

406

What does the parovirus cause?

decreased RBC production, so dramatic Hb drop

407

Do elliptocytosis and spherocytosis have horizontal or vertical interactions?

e - horizontal
s - vertical

408

Function of G6PD?

protects from damage as it provides fuel for RBC and generates redox capacity to protect it, so without it leads to shortened RBC lifespan from oxidative damage

409

What is classed as febrile neutropenia?

temp >38 and neutrophil count

410

What is hyperviscosity?

increase in whole blood viscosity due to raise Ig from malignant clone of plasma cells

411

Effect of hyperviscosity?

sludging and lack of perfusion through the microvasculature leading to leukaemia, myeloma, polycythaemia, waldenstroms macroglobulinaemia

412

How does hyperviscosity present?

lethargy, headaches, confusion, visual disturbance, cranial nerve defects, ataxia, retinal haemorrhage, dyspnoea, cough

413

Treatment of hyperviscosity?

plasmapheresis, leucopheresis, stumbling blocks, avoid blood transfusions, chemo

414

What is tumour lysis syndrome?

life threatening matabolic derangement leading to renal, cardiac and neuro complications

415

When does tumour lysis syndrome occur?

in leukaemia and non hodgkins lymphoma

416

Treatment of tumour lysis syndrome?

aggressive IV hydration, cheo, prevent hyperuricaemia, allopurinol, treat hyperkalaemia, refer for dialysis, control electrolytes

417

Problems with blood provision?

donor population are mainly white british, sickle population is normally diverse background, often multiple transfusions needed, high risk of raising antibodies, may be difficult to provide large number of matched units quickly, infrom NBS early

418

What is acute sickle chest syndrome?

HbSS inheriting 2 cpies of beta chain mutation, polymerisation of Hb cascade of effects, reducing blood flow to tissue leading to infarction, causes hypoxia, raised RR, chest pain, fever

419

Treatment of acute sickle chest syndrome?

red cell exchange transfusion, cross match patient for 8 units of blood, usually require central access, liase with apheresis team, terminate the viscous cycle by reducing HbS, o2, opiates

420

What is myeloma?

malignant disease of plasma cells in the bone marrow

421

How common is multiple myeloma?

second most common haematological cancer

422

Who does multiple myeloma usually affect?

older people

423

Symptoms of multiple myeloma?

back pain, RTI, anaemia, tiredness, fatigue, renal failure, proteinuria, fractures, dehydration

424

What will investigations show in multiple myeloma?

proteinuria, lytic bone lesions

425

How is the vertebra affected in multiple myeloma?

undergoes lytic bone lesions and haematopoesis

426

pathophysiology of multiple myeloma?

increase in plama cell production so >10% plasma cells in bone marrow, so produce abnormal antibodies (IgG and IgA) in 75% of cases, and only produce only light chains (paraproteins)

427

What cells make and break down bone?

osteoblasts build
osteoclasts break down

428

What are bone marrow stromal cells?

regulates haematopoesis

429

What do osteoblasts secrete?

osteoids and minerals (calcium and phosphate) to form strong bones

430

What do osteoclasts secret?

HCl, causing release of calcium and phosphate form the bone to enter the blood

431

What activates osteoclasts?

osteoblasts that express RANKL which stimulates osteoclast activity and OPG decreases osteoclast activity

432

What happens to bone marrow stromal cells in multiple myeloma?

interact with cancerous cells through receptos and cytokines, resulting in cytokine mediated cell growth, survival, drug resistance and migration, allowing the multiple myeloma cells to survive, leading to increased osteoclast activity and reduced osteoblast activity

433

What do multiple myeloma cells secrete?

cytokines

e.g. IL-3 - inhibiting osteoblast activity

DKK1 - inhibitng OPG production so increases osteoclast activity

MIP1a - stimulates osteoclast activity

434

How can osteoclasts stimulate themselves?

through IL-6

435

What does an increase in osteoclatic activity lead to?

bone fractures and lesions and more calcium entering the body so hypercalcaemia, leading to dehydration and nerve proteins

436

What effect does paraproteins produced by multiple myeloma have?

leads to renal failure and light chains present in urine (Bencejones proteins)

437

How does multiple myeloma cause anaemia?

shift from myeloid progenitor to lymphoid progenitor, overproduction of plasma cells so lack of RBC production, kidney failure, so decrease erypotietin production

438

Investigations in multiple myeloma?

blood and urine

anaemia, paraproteinuria, hypercalcaemia, decrease normal antibodies, increased blood urea and nitrogen, increase in creatinine (renal incompentence), bence jones proteins, increased alkaline phosphatas

439

What will bone investigations show in multiple myeloma?

bone aspiration, bone marrow biopsy, >10% plasma proteins, osteoporosis, lytic lesions in bone and soft tissue, pepper pot skull, vertebral collapse, hyperviscosity is rare

440

Diagnosis of multiple myeloma?

prescence of monoclonal plasma cells in bone marrow >10%, monoclonal antibodies in serum or urine and one or more of the following: (CRAB)
hypercalcaemia
renal insuffieciency
anaemia
lytic bone lesions

441

Treatment of multiple myeloma?

chemotherapy and radiotherapy of vertebra etc

NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, EPO transfusion, IV Ig infusion, immunoparesis

442

What is virchows triad?

slowing of blood flow, hypercoagulability, vessel wall damage

443

At what age does multiple myeloma occur?

70 years

444

What is the main cause of death in multiple myeloma?

renal failure

445

What are the 4 classes of multiple myeloma?

symptomatic - significant paraproteinaemia or increase bone plasma cell, evidenceof organ damage

asymptomatic - significant paraproteinawmia, or increased bone plasma cells but no organ damage

monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance - monoclonal paraprotin in seum but not amm or smm

plasmacytoma - tumour of neoplastic plasma cells

446

What happens in a serum electrophoresis and immunofixation for multiple myeloma?

proteins move across a gel according to their charge, separate out according to size

paraprotein produces a band in HTE Ig region

tall spikes represent large amounts of single paraprotein immunoglobulin