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List the major side effects of transplant drugs

Tacrolimus (FK 506) --- nephrotoxcity

OKT3---increased rate of infection

MMF (cellcept) anemia or hypertension

prednisone-- hypertension/DM


List 5 absolute medical contra-indication for donation of a heart for transplantation

severe structural heart disease

severe coronary artery disease
active malignancy (exlcuding primary brain or skin cancer)
prior myocardial infarction
HIV positive

prolonged cardiac arrest

HIV positive


How does cyclosporine work

prevents development of T-cells by the inihibition of IL-2. It effects gene activation necessary for IL-2 production by inhibiting the function of calcium calcineurin which is essential for IL-2 gene activation


What is mechanisms of action of steroids

inhibit a variety of intracellular enyzmes that DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, thereby depressing cell-mediated immunity


What is mechanism of action of thymoglobin

is polyclonal antibody that decreases the level of circulating T cells by attaching to circulating lympohycytes and promoting cytolysis


What is mechanism of OKT3

is a monoclonal anti-T-cell antibody that binds to CD3 T-cell receptor site on cytotoxic cells interfering with antigen recognition.


4 possible etiologies for neurological dysfunction after CPB

Macroembolization ( gas atheroma)
Micro embolizatoin
Inadequate cerebral of gas
inadequate cerebral perfusion which may be result of reduced flow


What happens to the pH and PCO2 when a patient is cooled on CPB

The pH rises (more alkaloitc) and the PCo2 falls


What is alpah stat and what is one advantage

alpha-stat management keep pH at 7.40 and the PCO2 at 40 mmHg as measured at 37 degrees thus would make the patients blood alkalotic and hypocarbonic at the actual patient.

maintains cerebral autoregulation and optimizes intraceullular enzyme function.


What is pH stat and one advantage

keep the pH at 7.40 and the PCO2 at 40 mmHg as measured by the in vivo temperature thus the blood would be acidotic and hypercarbic if measured at 37 degrees. This results in increased cerebral blood flow, increased cerebral oxygenationand better cerebral cooling


What are the steps when CPB appears like it's clotting

Immediate unclamping of the cross clamp of the aorta
ventilate the patient
commence open cardiac massage
immediate clamping of the venous and arterial pump lines
Trendelenburg to auto transfuse
Administration of blood and/or crystalloids
consider pharmacological brain protection
ask for help to exchange the oxygenator and tubing


List 3 alternative to protamine

Recombinant platelet factor 4


What are options to use if satefy

Heparin _ psostabyclin
Danaparoid or r-hirudin
Defibrinogenating agent


How and where do you cannulate the axillary artery

Exposure is obtained at the proximal part of the artery, using a sub-clavicular incision. FIbers of Pectoralis major muscle are split and delto-pectoral fascia is opened


How and where do you cannulate the axillary artery

Exposure is obtained at the proximal part of the artery, using a sub-clavicular incision. FIbers of Pectoralis major muscle are split and delto-pectoral fascia is opened


What is the relation between the artery and its immediate surronding structures

The artery lies deep and superior to the axillary vening and inferior to the brachial plexus


How would you cannulate the artery

Cannulation is easier using a dacron graft sutures to the artery with insertion of the annula in the graft


While on CPB you experience "poor venous return/volume loss"

Loss of blood (disconnected line)
Large urine output
inadequate draining venous cannulaue
aortic clamo off and aortic valve Insufficently
Aortic vent failure
rare birds like PDA


What chamber is is prone to hypoventilation with RCP?

What % of nutrient flow drains by

Left coronary sinus

Right coronary sinus


Right ventricle

Left coronary ostium 30%
Right coronary ostium 3%
Ventricles =695


List 4 additional neuroprotection techqniues

Packing the head with ice
I V steroids
IV barbituatons
selective antegrade
retrograde cerebral perfusion


List in any order the 3 most common causes of death following cardiac transplantation

Accelerated coronary disease


What is complete orthotopic heart transplant technique

The right sided anastomosis are done to the SVC and IVC. The left sided anastomosis are done to two cuffs of the left atrium (one surrounding the left upper and lower pulmonary veins and the second to another cuff surrounding the right upper and lower pulmonary veins


What is standard Shumway/Lower heart transplant technique

The left and right atria are anastomosed at the atrial level


What is Bicaval heart transplant techqnique

The recipients entire right atrium is excised and the asnastomosis on the right side are done to the SVC and the IVC


What is heterotopic heart transplant

the individuals heart is left in place and transplant heart is piggybacked onto the recipients heart


What is autograft

organ or tissue from same individual is re-implantated


What is allograft

Organ or tissue from another non-identical individual of same species is tranplanted


What is Heterograft

Organ or tissue from another non-identical individual is tranplanted



Organ or tissue from individual of another species is tranplanted


List 5 histological changes currently used to grade the severity of cardiac rejection as per ISHLT

Lymphocytic infiltration
Myocyte damage
inflammatory infiltration
polymorphous infiltration


Describe the ISLT rejection statues

Grade 0 No rejection
Grade 1A Focal, mild, no necrosis
Grade 1B Diffuse infiltrate, no necrosis
Grade 2 Focal, moderate, one focus of aggressive infiltration with myoctye damage
Grade 3A Multifocal aggressive infiltration
Grade 3B Diffuse--diffuse inflammatory, myocyte necrosis
Grade 4 Severe rejection,Hemorrhage, vasculitis, Diffuse aggressive, edema


On which cells are class I antigens expressed

All cells of an organism


On which cells are Class II antigens (DP, DQ, DR) expressed

B lymphocytes
Activated T lymphyocytes
dentritic cells
Endothelial cells


What is peak oxygen consumption

Oxygen consumption during exercise provides an index of overall cardiovasular reserve that is useful both to quatitate function limitation and to estimate limitation
10 to 14 ml Kg min indicated very poor prognosis--cut off for transplantation

peak Vo2 over 16 to 18 have surivival rates similar to that of transplantation


Patient post tranplant with Po2 that's 50mmHg despite increasing Fi02 and things getting worse with PEEP what is it?

Missed PFO or ASD in donor heart


What is physiology of ASD causing hypoxia

Post transplant the right ventricle is stiff and dysfunctinon. Also, post transplant patients have a degree of pulmonary hypertension. This increases the afterload on the right side. This is made worse if the donor is smaller than the recipient. This causes are large shunt from right to left.


Why does PEEP make it worse

PEEP increases the right ventricular afterload and will increase the degree of right to left shunting


What is treatment for this shunt problem

decreasing right ventricular afterload with meds---Milrinone, nitric oxide.
Close the shunt percutaneous or surgically


Describe PRA and its importance for transplant

Prior to transplant the serum of potential recipient is exposed to panels of cells that express most HLA types. This allows if a potential recipient has pre-formed antibodies to common HLA antigens. If a candidate is known to react to more then 10% of the panel of specific pre-transplant cross matching between the donor and the recipient is required.


List 4 direct manifestations of CMV infection on heart transplants recipients

GI ulceration


Tremor post cardiac transplantation

likely do to Cyclosporine


What is treatment for cardiac rejection

A steroid pulse of IV methlprednisolone (500 to 1000mg/day x 3 days)
Pulse of increased oral prednisone (100mg/day x 3 days)
Course of biological agent such as ATG, ALG, OKT3


What are indirect effects of CMV

allograft rejection
bacterial superinfection
chronic graft rejection


What are types of "Bridges when it refers to transplant

Mechanical bridge to recovery implies that the device is implatned until the "stunned" myocardium recovers
Bridge to transplant means only hope is transplant.


For a middle aged active women what would you accept as minimally acceptable indexed EOA in the mitral valve

1.25 cm2/m2


How do you calculate indexed EOA

first BSA is (ht x wt/3600) square root. then you go EAO (cm2) divided by BSA (m2)


7 indications for surgery of left sided valve endocarditis

Congestive heart failure related to valve disruption
Severe AI
Extra valve extension (annular abscess)
Persistent infection
New onset heart block
multiple emboli
infection by resistant organisms


What is management of type A IMH

IMA is related but different then aortic dissection. Hemorrhage into the aortic media in the abscence of intimal tear

Optimal management not clear. Reported medical managment mortality is 50%
1/3 of patients progress to classic dissection.
The risk is higher with aortic diameters of > 5 cm.
Conventional aortic dissection surgery is the treatment of choice.


What is most common organism of infection for mechanincal valve proshesis

Staph Epi


What are minor duke critieria

Predisposition (heart condition or IV drug user)
Vascular phenomenon
Immunologic phenomenon
Microbiology evidence


List 7 complications of valvular substitutes

strucutural vavle degeneration
heart block
patient prosthesis mismatch
Perivalvular leak


3 options for addressing aortic valve at the time of dissection repair

Resuspension of the aortival valve comissures to the aortic wall before replacing the ascending aorta

Valve sparing aortic root replacement with attachment of the valve inside the aortic graft and reimplntation of the coronary ostia

aortic root replacment with mechanical or composite graft or a stentless porcine aortic root bioprosthesis and reimplntation of the coronary ostia


What form of coarctation repair is associated withe development of aneursysm opposite the patch

lateral Patch aortoplasty with dacron (or gortex)


List ways to reduced risk of paraplegia during aortic aneursym repair

Distal perfusion via femoral vein (or pulmonary artery)
distal perfusion via left atrium
Distal perfusion via Gott shunt (ascending aorta to femoral artery/descending thoracic aorta)
use of cardiopulmonary bypass and profound hypothermic circulatory arrest
thoracic spinal fluid drainage
reimplantation of intercostal arteris
steroid/Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring.


3 most commonly employed techniques for cerebral protection

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest
Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion
Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion


List 3 most common approaches to traumatic disruption of the proximal descending thoracic aorta

Left heart bypass
Femoral-Femoral full CPB
Clamp and Sew


When you fix, what are principles, and what kills from aortic dissection


Resection of the aortic segment involved with the intimal tear
Blood flow must be directed to the true lumen by tacking the dissection membrane to the outer aortic wall

aortic rupture, coroanry artery dissection and MI, aortic valve insufficieny and heart failure, pericardial tamponade


How you manage the septum (the flap of media and intima between the true and false lumen)

In acute dissection the false lumen should be obliterated by directly re-approximating the septum to the adventitia.

In chronic dissection, the septum must NOT be reapproximated so that both the true and false lumen have distal flow of blood.


List 5 conditions that predispose to aortic dissection

Hypertension (excessive mechanical and metabolic strain on the media)
Pregnancy (hypertension and loosing the connective tissue owing to the hormonal changes
Inheritable disorders (marfan, Turner, Noonan syndrome, Ehlor-Danlso syrdome...this causes rerangement of the assembly and deposition of fibrillin
Unicupsid and bicuspid valve.


List 4 contra-indications for mechanical support as a bridge to tranplantation d

Systemic life-threatening illness
Irreversible renal dysfunction
Ireversible haptic dysfunction
Patient is not a candidate for transplantation


List complications of IABP

Vessel perforation
Arterial branch occlusion
Acute AI
Gas escape
Acute aortic dissection
Wound problems
Chronic claudication
Femoral neurlagia
Peripheral thromboembolism


How really benefits from sinus rhythm (as opposed to VVI)

Those with ventricular hypertrophy
Those in congestive heart failure
Mitral stenosis


How does a rate responsive pacemaker work

Particular item is a product of increased metabolism and will be sensed by a transducer. This results in an electrical signal being sensed by the pacemaker electronic circuit and changes the pacemaker automatic interval and therefore the escape rate. As a detection of the item increase, the pacemaker output rate will increase; as the sensed parameter decreases, the pacemaker response will also decrease.


Life 5 items that may be tracked and used to modulate the rate in a rate responsive pacemaker

Lactic acid
Carbond dioxide
intra-cardiac pressure


Two ways to placed a PPM in a pt with a mechanical valve in triscuspid position

Epicardial pacing (subxyphoid or anterior thoractomy approach
Transvenous, transcoronary sinus, coroanry vein LV wall pacing


List indications for which you cannot close an adult ASD percutaneous

Location of ASD
sinus venosus defect
deficient septal rim
Size of defect
over 2.5 cm
Associated anomialies
pulmonary hypertension
partial anmalous venous return
azygous continuation


What changes do you make regarding surgery and CPB in a pregnant patient

position with a 30-60% right lateral pelvic tile to eliminate IVC compression by the relaxed uterus, which can can reduce venous return and cause arterial hypotension

accept at hematocrit of 30% on bypass

Maintain a flow of 20-40% higher than normal flow and a mean pressure of above 60 to 80 mmHg

Do you not sue systemic hypothermia


List 3 way that retrograde cerebral perfusion may help

Meets the metabolic needs of the brain
maintains brain hypothermic
migrates against the effects of particulate emboli


What is pathophysiology of elevation of pulmonary artery hypotension and systemic hypotension with protamine administration.

Pulmonary vasoconstriction occurs because of non-immunological anaphylactoid reaction

systemic hypotension is usually an inability to transfer blood across the lungs rather then systemic vasodilation

The mediators involved are complement fractions C3A and C5A and thromboxane


What is first response response of severe protamine reaction



How should a patient be managed if they have had a protamine reaction in the past and need another surgery

SInce response is non-allergic in origin, it is safe to administer protamine follow anaphylactoid reaction. Rate can be 2 mg per minute

when a true allergic reaction occurs (likley from histamine) the skin become flushed, the PA/CVP generally are low it's possible that pretreatment with corticosteroids along with a histamine receptor blockage can moderate the response to subsequent protamine administraion


What are steps when you see massive air in aortic line

stop the pump
open the aorta
establish retrograde cerebral perfusion with cold blood for 15-20 minutes
deair the ascending aorta
close the asecending aorta and reestablish antegrade perfusion
maintain hypothermia at least below 25 degrees
administer barbiturates
complete operation
inform family of gravity of situation


Describe Manougian root enlargement

The incision crosses the annulus through the commissure between the left and noncoronary sinus


Describe Nicks

An oblique incision in the anterior anscending aorta steers inferioly and to the right and crosses the aortic annulus in the middle of the non coroanry sinus and extends for variable distance into the base of the anterior mitral leaflet.


list 3 contraindications to the Ross procedure

Marfan and other collagen disorders
Vavular heart disease secondary to auto-immune or other systemic disorders (AS, RA, ARF, libman-sacks endocarditis)
Anatomical abnormalities on the pulmonic vavle
Poor LV
Multiple valve disease
severe aortic annular dilation


List contraindications to Aortic valve sparing

Annular dilation (> 30mm??)
moderate to severe cusp calcification
multiple fenestrations in the leaflets


List 6 echo findings for ischemic mitral insufficiency

Left ventricle dilation
Left ventricle posterolateral wall motion abnormality
Normal leaflet motion morphology
restricted leaflet motion
plane of coaptation below the annulus
Annuluar dilation
central jet of MR


What are 3 essential anatomic components of myxomatous mitral valve prolapse

Interchordal ballooning (hooding) of the mitral leaflets or portions therof, with or without elongated, thinned or ruptured chords

Diffuse leaflet thickening

annular dilation


List 4 echocardiographic elements used to evaluate a patient for suitability for balloon valvuloplasty or surgical commusurtomy

valve mobility
sibvavular thickening
leaflet thickening


List 5 methods of repairing anterior mitral valve leaflet prolapse

transfer of secondary chord to the unsupoorted free edge
quadrangular resection of the posterior leaflet and transerring that portion of the posteriorleaflet with its supporting chord to the anterior leaflet
chordal replacement with expanded PTFE
chordal shortening: the papillary muscle is split and the chord is shortened by embedding it in the muscle
resectino of a triangular wedge of the anterior leaflet
alfieri stich


What are features of mitral valve

Normal surface of mitral valve 4 to 6 cm2

Symptoms of mitral stenosis occur at 1 cm2

A pressure gradient occurs that may influence cardiac output occurs at 2cm2


List techniques for tricuspid valve repair

Partial leaflet resection with annuloplasty
tricuspid valve resection
triscuspid vale replacement
Abscess drainage with annular reconstruction


List indications to operate on tricuspid valve endocarditis

persistent sepsis despite antibiotic therapy
presistent annular or myocardial abscesses
recurrent septic pulmonary emboli
right heart failure secondary to valve insufficiency


List 5 complications of AMI constiuting indications for immediate surgical therapy

Ventricular septal rupture
LV free wall rupture
Mitral insufficiency (with hemodynamic instability)
Cardiogenic shock
Intractable ventricular arrhythmias
Evolving MI not responsive to medical therapy


What is diastolic dysfunction

Loss of compliance/loss of relaxation with abnormal distensibility abnormal filling


Risk factors for diastolic dysfunction

preop ischemia
(female) gender


4 strategies that can be used to treat diastolic dysfunction

Beta blockers
ACE inhibitors
techqniues to maintain sinus rhythm


List potential advantages of skeletonized LITA

Less reduction in sternal blood flow resulting in reduced rate of mediastinal infection
longer length of ITA
easier construction of sequential anastomoses
easier recognition of injury to the artery than with the full pedicle


A patient with heart failure of ischemic etiology is being assessed for CABG. LVEF is 20%

What condition of the myocardium predicts benefit from CABG

List 3 months this can be assessed

Prescense of myocardial viability

Thallium 201 rest/redistribution scan
Technetium 99 SPECT
Exercise Dobutamine stress echo
Constrast eco
constrast/enchanced MRI
PET scan


In stress thallium scan name 3 findings associated with high incidence of future cardiac events

increase lung uptake
stress relatated ventricular dilatation
large area of reversible dilation


Describe 3 mechanisms that ventricular aneurysms adversely affect left ventricular function

loss of contractile tissues in the area of the aneurysms reduces segmental and global LV ejection fraction

the resultant increase in ventricular size increase systolic wall stress by Laplace Law and thus the myocardial oxygen consumption

paradoxical expansion of the aneursym reduces forward stroke volume


What is definition of stunned myocardium

myocardium characterized by reduced controactility, reduced compliance, following an ischmia-reperfusion injury of insufficient magnitude to cause cellular necrosis

stunned myocardium is fully reversible


List 6 procedures used to assess atherosclerosis of the ascending aorta

Coronary angiogram
manual palpation
epi aortic ultra sound scanning


4 options to deal with calcified aorta

off pump cardiopulmonary bypass
femoral or axillary cannulation, on pump, circulatory arrest, replace ascending aorta
femoral or axillary cannulation, on pump, fibrillation arrest
Close patient and do PCI or continue medical management


Indications for surgical resection of left ventricular aneurysm

Concomittant angina
Peripheral embolism
malignant arrythmias
concomittant cardiac surgery
recurrent episodes of congestive heart failure


When assessing Doppler blood flow of a coronary bypass conduit, what characteristics will a LITA graft show compared to a graft

The LITA flow pattern is biphasic (systolic and diastolic perfusion)
The vein flow pattern is monophasic


List 4 criteria to select a radial artery as a coronary bypass conduit

Younger patient
Normal Allen test
High grade coronary stenosis (>90% on right) and >70% on left
Radial not calcified
No saphenous veins conduits available


Reasons why radial arteries failed

poor harvest technique
unavailability of antispasmodic drugs


Explain why radial artery has more propensity to spasm than the internal mammary artery

In radial artery the myocytes are organised into multiple tight layers while in the internal thoracic artery the muscle cells are less organized are irreggular in shape. This, together with the wider thickness of the media of the radial artery, may at least in part explain the propensity of the RA to spasm

Different arterial graft endothelia function properties


What is the nature and mechanism of Abciximab

What effect does it have on ACT

How do you decrease blood loss

Abciximab (Reopro) is a GPIIB/IIIA antiplatelet agent. It binds to the platelet membrane IIb/IIIA and prevents the binding of both fibrinogen and vonwillebrand factor to the receptor, thus preventing activated platelets from aggregating

prolongs ACT

Give platelets


List 3 devices or techniques to provide target stabilization and exposure during Off pumpt

Suction stabilizer
compression-type stabilizer
silastic snare
intraluminal snare
misted blower


List 4 possible advantages of OPCAB over conventional CABG cardiopulmonary bypass

Avoidance of the inflammatory response to CPB
Reduction of aortic manipulation
avoidance of global myocardial ischemia
Lower risk of neurologic injury
lower risk of renal dysfunction
less transfusion requirement
shorter hospital stay


What are risk of coronary artery endarterectomy

The perioperative MI rate is 5-30% and the peri-operative mortality rate s 0 to 10%


What are mechanisms of failure of SVG
0-3 months
1-3 years
After 8 years

technical problem

Intimal hyperplasia

graft atherosclerosis


List 2 nerves and the area of innervation that may be encountered during artery dissection of the forarm

Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve provides sensory innervation of the radial aspect of the volar forearm

superficial branch of the radial nerve innervates the radial aspects of the thumb and dorsum of the hand.


List 3 most common non-myxomatous benign cardiac masses

papillary fibroelastoma


3 most common primary malignant tumours of the heart



List 5 causes of culture negative endocarditis

Preceding antiobiotic therapy
Blood cultures not properly extracted and processed
atypical bacteria
some pathogenic agent require more time in the case of bacteria with a long generation period or slow growth
Tricuspid valve endocarditis which takes a chronic course, is also more difficult to diagnose on the base of hemocultures
Due to antigen properties of enterococci, candida, cryptococci, histoplama, buncella, chlaydia, salmonella, aspegillus, mycoplasma


During dissection of the SUV for bicaval cannulation you have have bleeding. What are possible sources

Injury to the SVC itself
Injury to azygous vein
injury to the right pulmonary artery


What is the incidence of AF after CABG

What are the predictors of post op AF

20% (20 to 50%)

Age greater then 70
History of congestive heart failure
history of per-operative AF
History of chronic lung disease
Valve disease
beta blocker withdrawal

you should anticoagulate when AF lasting more then 28 hours


What are ways to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance

High FiO2
Pulmonary vasodilators (NTG, PGEI)
Low PaCo2 (alkalosis)
Beta 2 agonists (isuprel)


5 days after CABG pt develops thrombocytopenia and a blue toe. what is management

Stop all heparin
stop coumadin
anticoagulate pt with a heparin substitue such as agatroban or danaparoid
monitor platelet count and start counamin when greater then 100 000


List common pulmonary complications post CPB

increased capillary permeability and interstitial edema
decreased pulmonary compliance
increased intrapulmonary shunt
pulmonary edema
pulmonary embolism


List 4 complications that may results from atrial fibrillation using radiofrequency as an energy source

circumflex artery infarction
esophageal injury with perforation
pulmonary vein stenosis
full thickness tissue necrosis with hemorrhage


What part of the heart is beleived to be the most common site for initiation of AF

Micro re-entrant circuits within the pulmonary vein orfices


What are two test for HITT

Functional test: the patients plasma causes platelet aggregation or secretion of serotonin in the presence of heparin

serologic test: Antobodies to Heparin-PF4 complexes or platelets-associated IgG are detected in pts patients serum


What is practical approach to HITTT

A 4T score for HIT
Thrombocytopenia, Timing, thrombosis, Alternative possible cause

First screening test is aimed at detecting antibodes of heparin-PF4-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunsorbent y). Detects all circulating antibodies and may also falsely identify antibodies.

The next test uses platelets and serum from the patient. the platelets are washed and mixed with serum and heparin. The sample is then tested for the release of serotonin (a marker of platelet activation). If this serotonin release assay (SRA) shows high serotinin release, the diagnossis is confirmed.


What are the 3 agents used when you have HITT



List the gross anatomic features of Idiopathic Hypertrophic Sub-Aortic Stenosis

Left ventricular wall and interventicular septum
asymmetrical hypertrophy
mild and upper septal hypertrophic bulge
plaque on upper septum
Left atrium
Left venticular cavity
Mitral valve
area of abrasion on anterior leaflet at level of SAM contact with interventricular septum


List histological features of myocardium of IHSS/HOCM

Myocardial disarray
Whorling configuration of hypertrophied myofibril


What are geneticsof HOCM

Autosomal dominant
Variable expression and penetrance


List two criteria which would depict the ideal candidate for pulmonary thromboenarterectomy

Thrombi must be accessible (thrombi with extension in main or lobar arteries, minimal small vessel involvement)

Vascular obstruction must be causing hemodynamic or ventilatory impairment

absence of co-morbid conditions (age is not an absolute contraindication_


Define HIT type I

Thrombocytopenia is moderate (greater than 100 000, early asymptomatic, and transient, resovling spontaneously despite further heparin administration


Define HIT type II

Thrombocytpenia is severe, persistent and often is associated with thromboembolic and hemorrhagic event


A patient is unable to tolerate AF meds. List 3 surgical procedures

The Cox-Maze III operation
Endocardial radiofrequency/microwave/laser ablation
Epicardial ablation


What are boundaries of Triangle of Koch

Tricuspid annulus or base of septal leaflet

Coronary sinus

Tendon of Todaro (continuation of the eustachian valve that runs to the central fibrous body)


What are the 7 roles of CANMEDS

Medical Expert
Health Advocate
Scholar Professional


List 5 main principles of Canada Health Act

Public Administraion


What are Debakey Class of aortic dissections

Type I-- Dissection involves the ascending aorta, transverse arch, and decending thoracic aorta
Type II--only involves ascending aorta
Type IIIa-Involves the descending thoracic aorta only
Type IIIb- is the same as A but extends into the abdominal aorta and occasionally the iliac artteries

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