Happy Emotions Flashcards Preview

Vocabulary > Happy Emotions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Happy Emotions Deck (104):



in a grinning manner



adjective [ADJECTIVE noun]

someone's behaviour which is light-hearted and casual about things which some people take seriously.

Giving them an airy wave of his hand, the Commander sailed past.

 graded adverb [ADVERB with verb]

'I'll be all right,' he said airily. 'Getting a new job won't be a problem'



filled with incredulity or surprise

I was absolutely amazed.

More than 50 amazed onlookers witnessed the brawl.

He said most of the cast was amazed by the play's success.

I was amazed that I managed to do it.

verb: amaze           to overwhelm or confound with sudden surprise or wonder




1.  believing something to have a humorous quality

He was not amused.

Sara was not amused by Franklin's teasing.

We were amused to see how assiduously the animal groomed its fur.

She was smiling enigmatically as if amused by some private joke.

We were amused at the antics of the chimps.

He was most amused by the story.

2.  pleasantly occupied

Having pictures to colour will keep children amused for hours.

Archie kept us amused with his stories.    

from a "at, to" (from Latin ad, but here probably a causal prefix) + muser "ponder, stare fixedly.    Literally:  to cause to ponder

Original meaning was to divert attention away from serious things, and the word meant to decieve or cheat by first occupying someone's attention.



adjective:  to be filled with sudden wonder or great surprise; amazed

Sometimes they look as if they are astonished to see you there, sometimes they just look cross.

astonish (v.)

c. 1300, astonien, "to stun, strike senseless," from Old French estoner "to stun, daze, deafen, astound," from Vulgar Latin *extonare, from Latin ex "out" (see ex-) + tonare "to thunder" (see thunder (n.)); so, literally "to leave someone thunderstruck." The modern form (influenced by English verbs in -ish, such as distinguish, diminish) is attested from 1520s. The meaning "amaze, shock with wonder" is from 1610s.




1.  displaying great happiness, calmness, etc

a beatific smile

2. of, conferring, or relating to a state of celestial happiness

from beāre to bless + facere to make  = To make blessed




1,  to be puzzled, confused

2,  to be plunged in thought; preocupied

body language:  When the boy reluctantly handed his abysmal report card to his father, the man gazed at the failing grades and then looked up in the air with a bemsued expression wondering why all of the extra tutoring had failed.  HIs son peered up at his father, who had inclined his head upwards with flaring nostrils, and felt disconsolate remorse at having disappointed him.


If something bemuses you, it puzzles or confuses you.

The sheer quantity of detail would bemuse even the most clear-headed author

muse (v.)  "to reflect, to be absorbed in thought

the be prefix here means thoroughly (intensifier)

literally "to stand with one's nose in the air"  related to the word muzzle.  Possibly a metaphor borrowing the image of a dog sniffing the air after loosing the scent.






1. serenely joyful or glad

2.  blissful ignorance - If someone is in blissful ignorance of something unpleasant or serious, they are totally unaware of it.

**blissful combines the feelings of joy with serenity, or peacefulness

in later Old English of spiritual joy, perfect felicity, the joy of heaven;



full of cheerful friendliness:

*** homiedervice from homme (man)

homme derives from the IEP *dhghem- root meaning "earth."

compare idiom: down to earth

bonhomie (n.)

"frank and simple good nature," 1803, from French bonhomie "good nature, easy temper," from bonhomme "good man" (with unusual loss of -m-), from bon "good" (see bon) + homme "man," from Latin homo "man" (see homunculus). The native equivalent is goodman. Bonhomme "member of an order of begging friars" is from 1620s.

bon (adj.)

French, literally "good" (adj.), from Latin bonus "good" (see bonus). It has crossed the Channel in phrases such as bon appétit, literally "good appetite" (1860); bon-ton "good style" (1744); bon mot (1735), etc. Compare boon, bonhomie.


Proto-Indo-European root meaning "earth."

It forms all or part of: antichthon; autochthon; autochthonic; bonhomie; bridegroom; camomile; chameleon; chernozem; chthonic; exhume; homage; hombre; homicide; hominid; Homo sapiens; homunculus; human; humane; humble; humiliate; humility; humus; inhumation; inhume; nemo; ombre; omerta.

It is the hypothetical source of Sanskrit ksam- "earth" (opposed to "sky"); Greek khthon "the earth, solid surface of the earth," khamai "on the ground;" Latin humus "earth, soil," humilis "low;" Lithuanian žeme, Old Church Slavonic zemlja "earth;" Old Irish du, genitive don "place," earlier "earth."



cheerful and optimistic:




without worry or responsibility; free from troubles

OE  caru: "sorrow, anxiety, grief," 

from PIE root *gar- "cry out, call, scream




1.  free and easy

2.  casual or indifferent toward matters of some importance

3.  disdainful, showing a haughty disregard; arrogant; supercilious, offhand




1. having a happy disposition; in good spirits

2. pleasantly bright; gladdening                    a cheerful room

3. hearty; ungrudging; enthusiastic                cheerful help

c. 1200, "the face," especially as expressing emotion, from Anglo-French chere "the face,"

Old French chiere "face, countenance, look, expression,"

from Late Latin cara "face", possibly from Greek kara "head,"

from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn; head."

From mid-13c. as "frame of mind, state of feeling, spirit; mood, humor."

By late 14c. the meaning had extended metaphorically to "mood, mental condition," as reflected in the face



adjective informal

1. cheerful; lively; nimble (agile, light-footed)

2. smartly dressed


Word origin of 'chipper' :   from northern British dialectal kipper "nimble, frisky,"

? akin to Du kipp, quick, lively



adjective (postpositive)

1. mentally or emotionally satisfied with things as they are

2. assenting to or willing to accept circumstances, a proposed course of action, etc

key concept:  a person's desires are held together (restrained)

from Latin contentus contented, that is, having restrained desires, from continēre to restrain

contain (v.)

from Latin continere (transitive) "to hold together, enclose,"

from com "with, together" (see com-) + tenere "to hold,"

from PIE root *ten- "to stretch.




accepting one's situation or life with equanimity and satisfaction




1. having to do with a feast or festive activity

2. fond of eating, drinking, and good company; sociable; jovial


L convivialis < convivium, a feast

< convivere, to carouse together

< com-, together + vivere, to live:




1.  to be extremely pleased and excited about something

2.  to be extremely pleased to do something

I was delighted to see him.

I was delighted to help him.




amusing in a quaint or odd manner; comical


droll (adj.)

1620s, from French drôle "odd, comical, funny" (1580s), in Middle French a noun meaning "a merry fellow," possibly from Middle Dutch drol "fat little fellow, goblin," or Middle High German trolle "clown,"

ultimately from Old Norse troll "giant, troll" 




1. overflowing with enthusiasm or excitement; exuberant

2. boiling

C16: from Latin ēbullīre to bubble forth, be boisterous, from bullīre to boil

Figurative sense of "enthusiastic" is first recorded 1660s.




1. in a trancelike state of great rapture or delight

2. showing or feeling great enthusiasm

ecstatic applause

ecstatic (adj.)

1590s, "mystically absorbed," from Greek ekstatikos "unstable, from ekstasis (see ecstasy).

Meaning "characterized by or subject to intense emotions" is from 1660s, now usually pleasurable ones, but not originally always so.




full of high spirits, exhilaration, pride or optimism; very happy

1570s, literal, "to raise, elevate," probably from Latin elatus "uplifted, exalted," past participle of effere "carry out, bring forth" (see elation), or else a back-formation from elation. Figurative use, "to raise or swell the mind or spirit with satisfaction and pride," is from 1610s




1. to be influenced by or as if by charms and incantation :  bewitched

2 :  to be attracted and moved deeply : 

Roused to ecstatic admiration, the scene enchanted her to the point of tears — 

enchant (v.)

from L rapere "hurry away, carry off, seize, plunder," from PIE root *rep- "to snatch"

late 14c., literal and figurative, from Old French enchanter "bewitch, charm, cast a spell" (12c.), from Latin incantare "to enchant, fix a spell upon"



to be carried off mentally with delight


rapture (n.)

c. 1600, "act of carrying off," from Middle French rapture, from Medieval Latin raptura "seizure, rape, kidnapping," from Latin raptus "a carrying off, abduction, snatching away; rape" (see rapt). Earliest attested use in English is of women and in 17c. it sometimes meant rape (v.), which word is a cognate of this. Sense of "spiritual ecstasy, state of mental transport" first recorded c. 1600 (raptures).




Noun:  a feeling of energetic interest in a particular subject or activity and a desire to be involved in it

I find that I’m losing my enthusiasm for the game.

ardor did her work with energy and enthusiasm

Noun :  something inspiring zeal or fervor

his enthusiasms include sailing and fishing



What is the history of enthusiasm?

It may come as a surprise to many people, when they first look up the word enthusiasm, to see that its original meaning has to do with passion for religion, rather than passionate or eager interest in general. A brief explanation of the word’s etymology should clear this up. Enthusiasm entered the English language around the beginning of the 17th century. It was borrowed from the Greek enthousiasmos, meaning “inspiration or possession by a god.” For the first two hundred or so years that it was used in English, enthusiasm was primarily employed to refer to beliefs or passions that related to religion. By the beginning of the 18th century, however, the word began to be used to describe having strong feelings or interest in secular matters.

enthusiasm (n.)

c. 1600, from Middle French enthousiasme (16c.) and directly from Late Latin enthusiasmus, from Greek enthousiasmos "divine inspiration, enthusiasm (produced by certain kinds of music, etc.)," from enthousiazein "be inspired or possessed by a god, be rapt, be in ecstasy," from entheos "divinely inspired, possessed by a god," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts). It acquired a derogatory sense of "excessive religious emotion through the conceit of special revelation from God" (1650s) under the Puritans; generalized meaning "fervor, zeal" (the main modern sense) is first recorded 1716.




frolicsome, roguish

Espiègle is a corruption of Ulespiegle, the French name for Till Eulenspiegel, a peasant prankster of German folklore. Tales of Eulenspiegel's merry pranks against well-to-do townsmen, clergy, and nobility were first translated into French in 1532 and into English around 1560. In the 19th century, Sir Walter Scott introduced his readers to the adjective espiègle and the related noun espièglerie (a word for "roguishness" or "playfulness") in his Waverley novels. Other 19th century authors followed suit, and even today these words are most likely to be encountered in literature.




intense happiness and excitement

Greek, from euphoros healthy, from eu- + pherein to bear — more at bear

euphoria Has Greek Roots

Health and happiness are often linked, sometimes even in etymologies. Nowadays "euphoria" generally refers to happiness, but it derives from "euphoros," a Greek word that means "healthy." Given that root, it's not surprising that in its original English uses, it was a medical term. A 1706 quotation shows how doctors used it then: "'Euphoria,' the well bearing of the Operation of a Medicine, i.e. when the Patient finds himself eas'd or reliev'd by it." Modern physicians still use the term, but they aren't likely to prescribe something that will cause it. In contemporary medicine, "euphoria" describes abnormal or inappropriate feelings such as those caused by an illegal drug or an illness.




being excited about something that is belived to happen soon


expect (v.)

1550s, "wait, defer action," from Latin expectare/exspectare "await, look out for; desire, hope, long for, anticipate; look for with anticipation," from ex- "thoroughly" (see ex-) + spectare "to look," frequentative of specere "to look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe").

Figurative sense of "anticipate, look forward to" developed in Latin and is attested in English from c. 1600. Also from c. 1600 as "regard as about to happen." Meaning "count upon (to do something), trust or rely on" is from 1630s. Used since 1817 as a euphemism for "be pregnant." In the sense "suppose, reckon, suspect," it is attested from 1640s but was regarded as a New England provincialism. Related: Expected; expecting.



1 :  extreme or excessive in degree, size, or extent exuberant prosperity

2a :  joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic exuberant praise an exuberant personality

b :  unrestrained or elaborate especially in style :  flamboyant exuberant architecture

3 :  produced in extreme abundance :  plentiful exuberant foliage and vegetation


exuberant (adj.)

mid-15c., from Middle French exubérant and directly from Latin exuberantem (nominative exuberans) "overabundance," present participle of exuberare "be abundant, grow luxuriously," from ex, here probably "thoroughly" (see ex-), + uberare "be fruitful," related to uber "udder," from PIE root *eue-dh-r- (see udder)




elated or jubilant, esp because of triumph or success

metaphor:  to leap up and dance with joy

The little girl was exultant when her father showed her the circus tickets, and  clapped her hands while jumping up and down.

exult (v.)

1560s, "to leap up;" 1590s, "to rejoice, triumph," from Middle French exulter, from Latin exultare/exsultare "rejoice exceedingly, revel, vaunt, boast;" literally "leap about, leap up," frequentative of exsilire "to leap up," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)). The notion is of leaping or dancing for joy.




1. not based on fact; dubious or imaginary                 fanciful notions

2. made or designed in a curious, intricate, or imaginative way

3. indulging in or influenced by fancy; whimsical

nfancy is a contraction of fantasy

fantasy (n.)

early 14c., "illusory appearance," from Old French fantaisie, phantasie "vision, imagination" (14c.), from Latin phantasia, from Greek phantasia "power of imagination; appearance, image, perception," from phantazesthai "picture to oneself," from phantos "visible," from phainesthai "appear," in late Greek "to imagine, have visions," related to phaos, phos "light,"

phainein "to show, to bring to light" (from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine").




having no commitments; carefree



1. adjective [usually ADJECTIVE noun]

Something that is festive is special, colourful, or exciting, especially because of a holiday or celebration


festive (adj.)

1650s, "pertaining to a feast," from Latin festivus "festive, joyous, gay," from festum "festival, holiday," noun use of neuter of adjective festus "joyful, merry" (see feast (n.)). The word is unattested in English from 1651 to 1735 (it reappears in a poem by William Somervile, with the sense "fond of feasting, jovial"), and the modern use may be a back-formation from festivity. Meaning "mirthful, joyous" in English is attested by 1774. Related: Festively; festiveness.

When the Day crown'd with rural, chaste Delight
Resigns obsequious to the festive Night;
The festive Night awakes th' harmonious Lay,
And in sweet Verse recounts the Triumphs of the Day.
[Somervile, "The Chace"]

Earlier adjectives in English based on the Latin word were festival "pertaining to a church feast"






  • given to frolicking; merry and playful



  • a light-hearted entertainment or occasion
  • light-hearted activity; gaiety; merriment


  • to caper about; act or behave playfully





possessing the feeling of having reached one's potential




enjoying the good or fun things in life




1. causing laughter; laughable; amusing; humorous

2.  Informal

a. out of the ordinary; strange; queer

b.  deceptive or tricky

Someone or something that is funny is amusing and likely to make you smile or laugh.




playful; sportive; frolicsome


ME gamsum: see game & -some

game (adj.2)

"ready for action, unafraid, and up to the task;" probably literally "spirited as a game-cock," 1725, from game-cock "bird bred for fighting" (1670s), from game (n.) in the "sport, amusement" sense. Middle English adjectives gamesome, gamelich meant "joyful, playful, sportive."


game (n.)

c. 1200, from Old English gamen "joy, fun; game, amusement," common Germanic (cognates: Old Frisian game "joy, glee," Old Norse gaman "game, sport; pleasure, amusement," Old Saxon gaman, Old High German gaman "sport, merriment," Danish gamen, Swedish gamman "merriment"), said to be identical with Gothic gaman "participation, communion," from Proto-Germanic *ga- collective prefix + *mann "person," giving a sense of "people together."





gay (adj.)

carefree and merry

a gay temperament

b. brightly coloured; brilliant

a gay hat

c. given to pleasure, esp in social entertainment

a gay life

The Housewive of NYC  preoccupy themselves with living gay lives, although they do dabble in business to a lesser or greater extent.






late 14c., "full of joy, merry; light-hearted, carefree;" also "wanton, lewd, lascivious" (late 12c. as a surname, Philippus de Gay), from Old French gai "joyful, happy; pleasant, agreeably charming; forward, pert; light-colored" (12c.; compare Old Spanish gayo, Portuguese gaio, Italian gajo, probably French loan-words). Ultimate origin disputed; perhaps from Frankish *gahi (related to Old High German wahi "pretty"), though not all etymologists accept this. Meaning "stately and beautiful; splendid and showily dressed" is from early 14c. In the English of Yorkshire and Scotland formerly it could mean "moderately, rather, considerable" (1796; compare sense development in pretty (adj.)).

The word gay by the 1890s had an overall tinge of promiscuity -- a gay house was a brothel.




having a feeling or atmosphere of warmth and friendliness; cosy




inconstant; fickle, impulsive; scatterbrained

frivolous; flighty; heedless


If you feel giddy with delight or excitement, you feel so happy or excited that you find it hard to think or act normally.

ME gidie < OE gydig, insane, prob. < base (*gud) of god, god + -ig (see -y3): hence, basic meaning “possessed by a god”





1.  happy and pleased; contented

2. causing happiness or contentment

3. very willing

he was glad to help

4. (postpositive ; followed by of)     happy or pleased to have    

glad of her help


glad (adj.)

Old English glæd "bright, shining, gleaming; joyous; pleasant, gracious" (also as a noun, "joy, gladness"), from Proto-Germanic *gladaz (source also of Old Norse glaðr "smooth, bright, glad," Danish glad "glad, joyful," Old Saxon gladmod, in which the element means "glad," Old Frisian gled "smooth," Dutch glad "slippery," German glatt "smooth"), from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine." Apparently the notion is of being radiant with joy; the modern sense "feeling pleasure or satisfaction" is much weakened. Slang glad rags "one's best clothes" first recorded 1902.




full of glee; merry

Someone who is gleeful is happy and excited, often because of someone else's bad luck.

What you remember are the gleeful celebrations of human cruelty. The Sun (2014)



from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine








1.  flushed and rosy, as from exercise or excitement

glowing cheeks

2. Displaying or indicative of extreme satisfaction, pride, or emotion

he gave a glowing account of his son's achievements


glow (n.)

mid-15c., "glowing heat," from glow (v.). Meaning "a flush of radiant feeling" is from 1793.

glow (v.)

Old English glowan "to glow, shine as if red-hot," from Proto-Germanic *glo- (source also of Old Saxon gloian, Old Frisian gled "glow, blaze," Old Norse gloa, Old High German gluoen, German glühen "to glow, glitter, shine"), from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives referring to bright materials and gold. Figuratively from late 14c. Related: Glowed; glowing. Swedish dialectal and Danish glo also have the extended sense "stare, gaze upon," which is found in Middle English.




1. feeling, showing, or expressing joy; pleased

2. willing

I'd be happy to show you around

3. causing joy or gladness

4. fortunate; lucky

the happy position of not having to work

5. aptly expressed; appropriate

a happy turn of phrase

6. (postpositive) informal

slightly intoxicated

7. exclamation

happy birthday

happy Christmas


happy (adj.)

late 14c., "lucky, favored by fortune, being in advantageous circumstances, prosperous;" of events, "turning out well," from hap (n.) "chance, fortune" + -y (2). Sense of "very glad" first recorded late 14c. Meaning "greatly pleased and content" is from 1520s.




having similar or conforming feelings, ideas, interests, etc.; in accord


harmony (n.)

late 14c., "combination of tones pleasing to the ear," from Old French harmonie, armonie "harmony," also the name of a musical instrument (12c.), from Latin harmonia, from Greek harmonia "agreement, concord of sounds," also as a proper name, the personification of music, literally "means of joining," used of ship-planks, etc., also "settled government, order," related to harmos "fastenings of a door; joint, shoulder," from PIE ar(ə)-smo-, suffixed form of root *ar- "to fit together." Modern scientific harmony, using combinations of notes to form chords, is from 16c. Sense of "agreement of feeling, concord" is from late 14c.




1. noisily merry; boisterous and joyous

2. producing great merriment; very funny

hilarity (n.)

mid-15c., from Latin hilaritatem (nominative hilaritas) "cheerfulness, gaiety, merriment," from hilaris "cheerful, merry," from Greek hilaros "cheerful, merry, joyous," related to hilaos "graceful, kindly," and possibly from a suffixed form of the PIE root *sel- (2) "happy, of good mood" (see silly). In ancient Rome, Hilaria (neuter plural of hilaris) were a class of holidays, times of pomp and rejoicing; there were public ones in honor of Cybele at the spring equinoxes as well as private ones on the day of a marriage or a son's birth.




1. causing lighthearted laughter and amusement; comic: "a humorous and entertaining talk" 

▪ having or showing a sense of humor: "his humorous gray eyes"

In ancient and medieval physiology, "any of the four body fluids" (blood, phlegm, choler, and melancholy or black bile) whose relative proportions were thought to determine physical condition and state of mind.

This led to a sense of "mood, temporary state of mind" (first recorded 1520s);

the sense of "amusing quality, funniness, jocular turn of mind" is first recorded 1680s, probably via sense of "whim, caprice" as determined by state of mind (1560s), which also produced the verb sense of "indulge (someone's) fancy or disposition." 




1. feeling optimism about a future event:  I am hopeful about finding a new job

2. feeling or showing hope; expecting to get what one wants

3.  inspiring or giving hope:  a hopeful sign



behavioral trait

prone to act disrespectful or naughty in a playful way

impish sense of humour.


imp (n.)

Old English impe, impa "young shoot, graft," from impian "to graft," probably an early Germanic borrowing from Vulgar Latin *imptus, from Late Latin impotus "implanted," from Greek emphytos, verbal adjective formed from emphyein "implant," from em- "in" + phyein "to bring forth, make grow," from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow." Compare Swedish ymp, Danish ympe "graft."

The sense of the word has shifted from plants to people, via the meaning "child, offspring" (late 14c., now obsolete), from the notion of "newness." The current meaning "little devil" is attested from 1580s, from common pejorative phrases such as imp of Satan. The extension from this to "mischievous or pert child" (1640s) unconsciously turns the word back toward its Middle English sense.



infectious (adj.)

"catching, having the quality of spreading from person to person, communicable by infection," 1540s of diseases, 1610s of emotions, actions, etc.; see infection + -ous.

e.g. his laughter was infectious (spread to other people)

infect (v.)

late 14c., "fill with disease, render pestilential; pollute, contaminate; to corrupt morally," from Latin infectus, past participle of inficere "to stain, tinge, dye," also "to corrupt, stain, spoil," literally "to put in to, dip into," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + facere "to make, do, perform" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). In Middle English occasionally in a neutral sense "tinge, darken," but typically used of things indifferent or bad, and especially of disease.




having or expressing a lively, cheerful, and self-confident manner:

"there was no mistaking that jaunty walk"

the words "jaunty" and "genteel" are related - but they are. Both words evolved from the French word gentil, which carried the sense of "noble." At first "jaunty" was used, like "genteel," for things aristocratic, but as the years went by people stopped using it that way. Today "jaunty" is used to describe things that are lively and perky - not things that are aristocratic and elegant - and the only remaining clue to its noble origin is in its pronunciation.





1 :  given to making good humored jests (usually habitual)

2 :  characterized by joking :  humorous


When you need a word to describe something (or someone) that causes or is intended to cause laughter, you might pick "jocose" or a synonym such as "humorous," "witty," "facetious," or "jocular." Of those terms, "humorous" is the most generic and can be applied to anything that provokes laughter. "Witty" suggests cleverness and a quick mind, while facetious is a word for something that is not meant to be taken seriously. "Jocose" and "jocular" both imply a habitual waggishness and a fondness for joking.

joke (n.)

1660s, joque, "a jest, something done to excite laughter," from Latin iocus "joke, jest, sport, pastime" (source also of French jeu, Spanish juego, Portuguese jogo, Italian gioco), from Proto-Italic *joko-, from PIE *iok-o- "word, utterance," from root *yek- (1) "to speak" (cognates: Welsh iaith, Breton iez "language," Middle Irish icht "people;" Old High German jehan, Old Saxon gehan "to say, express, utter;" Old High German jiht, German Beichte "confession").



jocular (adj.)



1 :  said or done as a joke :  characterized by jesting :  playful jocular remarks

2 :  given to jesting :  habitually jolly or jocund a jocular man


1620s, "disposed to joking," from Latin iocularis "funny, comic," from ioculus "joke," diminutive of iocus "pastime; a joke" (see joke (n.)). Often it implies evasion of an issue by a joke.


witty, humorous, facetious, jocular, jocose mean provoking or intended to provoke laughter. witty suggests cleverness and quickness of mind. 〈a witty remark〉 humorous applies broadly to anything that evokes usually genial laughter and may contrast with witty in suggesting whimsicality or eccentricity. 〈humorous anecdotes〉 facetious stresses a desire to produce laughter and may be derogatory in implying dubious or ill-timed attempts at wit or humor. 〈facetious comments〉 jocular implies a usually habitual fondness for jesting and joking. 〈a jocular fellow〉 jocose is somewhat less derogatory than facetious in suggesting habitual waggishness or playfulness. 〈jocose proposals〉



jocund (adj.)

cheerful and light hearted (but not funny)

Middle English, from Late Latin jocundus, alteration of Latin jucundus, from juvare to help

late 14c., "pleasing, gracious; joyful," from Old French jocond or directly from Late Latin iocundus (source of Spanish jocunde, Italian giocondo), variant (influenced by iocus "joke") of Latin iucundus "pleasant, agreeable," originally "helpful," contraction of *iuvicundus, from iuvare "to please, benefit, help, give strength, support," which is from a PIE source perhaps related to the root of iuvenis "young person" (see young (adj.)).

In jocose cheerfulness or light-heartedness is an accidental thing; in jocund it is the essential idea. [Century Dictionary]



full of high spirits : 

given to conviviality

expressing, suggesting, or inspiring lively happiness and good cheer

extremely pleasant or agreeable :  splendid had a jolly time



high spirited; convivial (sociable), friendly, cheerful



expressing joy ( a feeling combining happiness and spiritual contentment)



1. having a happy nature or mood

2. joyful



feeling extremely happy because of a success



1. that laughs or appears to laugh             a laughing brook

2. uttered with laughter                             a laughing remark



tending to be entertaining or amusing, and not at all serious.


rom PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight



A lilting voice or song rises and falls in pitch in a pleasant way



expressive of a playful but aimless outlook

showing spontaneous and undirected playfulness.

Fr ludique < L ludus: see ludicrous



1.  full of fun and laughter; lively and cheerful

2. conducive to fun and laughter; festive       the merry month of May



full of, expressing, or causing mirth; merry



from PIE root *mregh-u- "short."  Connection to "pleasure" is likely via notion of "making time fly, that which makes the time seem to pass quickly"



1 :  harmful, injurious mischievous gossip

2a :  able or tending to cause annoyance, trouble, or minor injury

2b :  irresponsibly playful mischievous behavior


mischief (n.)

c. 1300, "evil condition, misfortune, need, want," from Old French meschief "misfortune, harm, trouble; annoyance, vexation" (12c., Modern French méchef), verbal noun from meschever "come or bring to grief, be unfortunate" (opposite of achieve), from mes- "badly" (see mis- (2)) + chever "happen, come to a head," from Vulgar Latin *capare "head," from Latin caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). Meaning "harm or evil considered as the work of some agent or due to some cause" is from late 15c. Sense of "playful malice" first recorded 1784.



feeling or believing that good things will happen in the future : 

feeling or believing that what you hope for will happen



feeling filled with gladness 




briskly self-assured :  cocky

perk (v.)

late 14c., "to make oneself trim or smart," perhaps from Old North French perquer "to perch" (Modern French percher; see perch (n.1)), on notion of a bird preening its plumage. Sense of "raise oneself briskly" is first attested 1520s; perk up "recover liveliness" is from 1650s.




  • behavior attribute

                 prone to playing and having fun

  • intention or manner attribute 

                 done with an intent to play or in a nonserious way


Old English plegan, plegian "move rapidly, occupy or busy oneself, exercise; frolic; make sport of, mock; perform music," from West Germanic *plegan "occupy oneself about" (source also of Old Saxon plegan "vouch for, take charge of," Old Frisian plega "tend to," Middle Dutch pleyen "to rejoice, be glad," German pflegen "take care of, cultivate"), from PIE root *dlegh- "to engage oneself, be or become fixed."




emotional state attribute

feeling happy or satisfied at some particular circunstnace

Her parents were pleased by her decision


from Latin placere "to be acceptable, be liked, be approved," related to placare "to soothe, quiet" (source of Spanish placer, Italian piacere), from PIE *pl(e)hk- "to agree, be pleasant," 




In a state of excited preparedness and heightened keenness;

pumped up

They were all psyched up to carry the blue and white banner of Catawba College



behavior attribute

prone to play tricks on people or to tease



appearance attribute

having a sustained appearance of happiness about the countenance



1 :an expression or manifestation of ecstasy or passion

2 a :a state or experience of being carried away by overwhelming emotion

b :a mystical experience in which the spirit is exalted to a knowledge of divine things

3 often capitalized :the final assumption of Christians into heaven during the end-time according to Christian theology




rapture (n.)

c. 1600, "act of carrying off," from Middle French rapture, from Medieval Latin raptura "seizure, rape, kidnapping," from Latin raptus "a carrying off, abduction, snatching away; rape" (see rapt). Earliest attested use in English is of women and in 17c. it sometimes meant rape (v.), which word is a cognate of this. Sense of "spiritual ecstasy, state of mental transport" first recorded c. 1600 (raptures).



to be overcome with emotion (such as joy or delight)

I was ravished by the scenic beauty of the Grand Canyon

ravished means to be bodily seized and carried away suddenly

Ravished by joy is a metaphore describing an image of overpowering joy seizing hold of a person almost against their will.  I.E., they have no power to resist it

ravish (v.)

c. 1300, "to seize (someone) by violence, carry (a person, especially a woman) away," from Old French raviss-, present participle stem of ravir "to seize, take away hastily," from Vulgar Latin *rapire, from Latin rapere "to seize and carry off, carry away suddenly, hurry away" (see rapid). Meaning "to commit rape upon" is recorded from mid-15c. Related: Ravished; ravishing.




experiencing or showing relief especially from anxiety or pent-up emotions

The metaphore is of one's body being lifted up and freed from a burden that is weighing it down

THis metaphore is exemplied by the English idioms "that's a weight off my shoulders" and "that's a load off my mind"


relieve (v.)

late 14c., "alleviate (pain, etc.), mitigate; afford comfort; allow respite; diminish the pressure of," also "give alms to, provide for;" also figuratively, "take heart, cheer up;" from Old French relever "to raise, relieve" (11c.) and directly from Latin relevare "to raise, alleviate, lift up, free from a burden," from re-, intensive prefix (see re-), + levare "to lift up, lighten," from levis "not heavy" (from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight").

The notion is "to raise (someone) out of trouble." From c. 1400 as "advance to the rescue in battle;" also "return from battle; recall (troops)." Meaning "release from duty" is from early 15c. Related: relieved; relieving.



1 :extravagantly emotional :rapturous  extravagantly enthusiastic; ecstatic

2 :resembling or characteristic of a rhapsody

Rhapsodic implies that a person is so happy that it compels them to break out into song or lavish speech on the subject of their immediate joy.


rhapsody (n.)

1540s, "epic poem," from Middle French rhapsodie, from Latin rhapsodia, from Greek rhapsoidia "verse composition, recitation of epic poetry; a book, a lay, a canto," from rhapsodos "reciter of epic poems," literally "one who stitches or strings songs together," from rhaptein "to stitch, sew, weave" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend") + oide "song" (see ode). Meaning "exalted enthusiastic feeling or expression" is from 1630s. Meaning "sprightly musical composition" is first recorded 1850

ode (n.)

1580s, from Middle French ode (c. 1500), from Late Latin ode "lyric song," from Greek oide, Attic contraction of aoide "song, ode;" related to aeidein (Attic aidein) "to sing;" aoidos (Attic oidos) "a singer, singing;" aude "voice, tone, sound," probably from a PIE *e-weid-, perhaps from root *wed- "to speak." In classical use, "a poem intended to be sung;" in modern use usually a rhymed lyric, often an address, usually dignified, rarely extending to 150 lines. Related: Odic.



laughing; smiling; merry; cheerful

Word origin of 'riant'

Fr, prp. of rire < L ridere, to laugh: see ridicule



having a tendency to laugh


risible (adj.)

1550s, "given to laughter," from Middle French risible (14c.) and directly from Late Latin risibilis "laughable, able to laugh," from Latin risus, past participle of ridere "to laugh," a word which, according to de Vaan, "has no good PIE etymology." Meaning "capable of exciting laughter, comical" is from 1727.



1 :vagrant, tramp

2 :a dishonest or worthless person :scoundrel

3 :a mischievous person :scamp

4 :a horse inclined to shirk or misbehave

5 :an individual exhibiting a chance and usually inferior biological variation

rogue (n.)

1560s, "idle vagrant," perhaps a shortened form of roger (with a hard -g-), thieves' slang for a begging vagabond who pretends to be a poor scholar from Oxford or Cambridge, which is perhaps an agent noun in English from Latin rogare "to ask." Another theory [Klein] traces it to Celtic (compare Breton rog "haughty"); OED says, "There is no evidence of connexion with F. rogue 'arrogant.' "

In playful or affectionate use, "one who is mischievous," 1590s. Meaning "large wild beast living apart from the herd" is from 1859, originally of elephants. Meaning "something uncontrolled or undisciplined" is from 1964. Also common in 17c. as a verb. Rogue's gallery "police collection of mug shots" is attested from 1859.



1 :resembling a rose especially in color

2 :overly optimistic :viewed favorably

The sense of being overly optimistic is contained in the idiom: "he sees things through rose colored glasses"



characterized by or tending to promote optimism

a rosy outlook



marked by sturdiness, high color, and cheerfulness

confident, optimistic

1 :bloodred

2 a :consisting of or relating to blood

b :bloodthirsty, sanguinary

c of the complexion :ruddy

3 :having blood as the predominating bodily humor; also :having the bodily conformation and temperament held characteristic of such predominance and marked by sturdiness, high color, and cheerfulness





sanguine (adj.)

"blood-red," late 14c. (late 12c. as a surname), from Old French sanguin (fem. sanguine), from Latin sanguineus "of blood," also "bloody, bloodthirsty," from sanguis (genitive sanguinis) "blood" (see sanguinary). Meaning "cheerful, hopeful, confident" first attested c. 1500, because these qualities were thought in medieval physiology to spring from an excess of blood as one of the four humors. Also in Middle English as a noun, "type of red cloth" (early 14c.).



to be fully satisfied

If you are sated with something, you have had more of it than you can enjoy at one time

sate (v.)

"to satisfy, surfeit," c. 1600, alteration (by influence of Latin satiare "satiate") of Middle English saden "become satiated; satiate," from Old English sadian "to satiate, fill; be sated, get wearied," from Proto-Germanic *sadon "to satisfy, sate," from root *sa- "to satisfy." Related: Sated; sating.





1. happy because one has got what one wanted or needed

If you are not completely satisfied, return the goods for a full refund.

a satisfied customer

We are not satisfied with these results.

2. convinced that something is true or has been done properly; reassured

People must be satisfied that the treatment is safe.



If you say that someone or something is silly, you mean that they are foolish, childish, or ridiculous.

My best friend tells me that I am silly to be upset about this.

You silly boy; why did you tramp about so long in the cold?

I thought it would be silly to be too rude at that stage.

That's a silly question.

...a silly hat.

silliness uncountable noun:  She looked round to make sure there was no giggling or silliness.

2. adjective [verb noun ADJECTIVE]

If you do something such as laugh or drink yourself silly, you do it so much that you are unable to think or behave sensibly.


Right now the poor old devil's drinking himself silly.

Poor Donald's been worrying himself silly.




If you say that prices or confidence are sky-high, you are emphasizing that they are at a very high level.

Christie said: 'My confidence is sky high.'

...the effect of falling house prices and sky-high interest rates.

Sky high is also an adverb.

Their hopes went sky high when they heard the good news about John being offered the new job.

at or to an unprecedented or excessive level

prices rocketed sky-high


high into the air

3.  the balloon went sky-high



full of energy, animation, or courage

A spirited person is very active, lively, and confident.

He was by nature a spirited little boy.

spirit (n.)

mid-13c., "animating or vital principle in man and animals," from Anglo-French spirit, Old French espirit "spirit, soul" (12c., Modern French esprit) and directly from Latin spiritus "a breathing (respiration, and of the wind), breath; breath of a god," hence "inspiration; breath of life," hence "life;" also "disposition, character; high spirit, vigor, courage; pride, arrogance," related to spirare "to breathe," perhaps from PIE *(s)peis- "to blow" (source also of Old Church Slavonic pisto "to play on the flute"). But de Vaan says "Possibly an onomatopoeic formation imitating the sound of breathing. There are no direct cognates."



1. playful or joyous

2. done in jest rather than seriously

3. of, relating to, or interested in sports

I liked her forceful and sportive temperament, and I liked her passion for justice even more.



:regarding an object or a prospect in an overly favorable light; characterized by dreamy, impracticable, or utopian thinking :



slang      :being in an enthusiastic or exhilarated state


If you are stoked about something, you are very excited about it.

[US , informal]

"I can't wait to get there," she said. "I am so stoked about this trip."

The kids were happy, the crowds were stoked.


stoke (v.)

1680s, "to feed and stir up a fire in a fireplace or furnace," back-formation from stoker (1650s); ultimately from Dutch stoken "to stoke," from Middle Dutch stoken "to poke, thrust," related to stoc "stick, stump," from Proto-Germanic *stok- "pierce, prick," from PIE *steug-, extended form of root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see stick (v.)).

Meaning "to stir up, rouse" (feelings, etc.) is from 1837. Stoked "enthusiastic" recorded in surfer slang by 1963, but the extension of the word to persons is older, originally "to eat, to feed oneself up" (1882).

Having "stoked up," as the men called it, the brigades paraded at 10.30 a.m., ready for the next stage of the march. ["Cassell's History of the Boer War," 1901]



radiating good humor

Someone who has a sunny disposition is usually cheerful and happy.

He was a nice lad–bright and with a sunny disposition.

The staff wear big sunny smiles.

She has a very sunny disposition and just burns brightness.



grateful and appreciative



rejoicing for or celebrating victory

a triumphant shout

1. successful; victorious

2. rejoicing for victory; exulting in success; elated



in or into a state of greater intensity or excitement



waggish (adj.)

"willing to make a fool of oneself, and fond of doing so to others," 1580s, from wag (n.) + -ish. Related: Waggishly; waggishness.

2. roguishly merry

2. done, said, or made in jest; playful

a waggish remark


wag (v.)

early 13c. (intransitive), "waver, vacillate, lack steadfastness," probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Norse vagga "a cradle," Danish vugge "rock a cradle," Old Swedish wagga "fluctuate, rock" a cradle), and in part from Old English wagian "move backwards and forwards;" all from Proto-Germanic *wag- (source also of Old High German weggen, Gothic wagjan "to wag"), probably from PIE root *wegh- "to go, move, transport in a vehicle."

Transitive meaning "move (something) back and forth or up and down" is from c. 1300; of dogs and their tails from mid-15c.: "and whanne they [hounds] see the hure maystre they wol make him cheere and wagge hur tayles upon him." [Edward, Duke of York, "The Master of Game," 1456]. Related: Wagged; wagging. Wag-at-the-wall (1825) was an old name for a hanging clock with pendulum and weights exposed.




1 :full of, actuated by, or exhibiting whims

2 a :resulting from or characterized by whim or caprice; especially :lightly fanciful

whimsical decorations

b :subject to erratic behavior or unpredictable change

whimwham (n.)

"whimsical device, trifle," 1520s, of unknown origin; perhaps from Scandinavian (compare Old Norse hvima "to let the eyes wander," Norwegian kvima "to flutter"), or else an arbitrary native formation (compare flim-flam).



having or showing a wish; desirous; longing


Old English wyscan "to wish, cherish a desire," from Proto-Germanic *wunsk- (source also of Old Norse œskja, Danish ønske, Swedish önska, Middle Dutch wonscen, Dutch wensen, Old High German wunsken, German wunschen "to wish"), from PIE root *wen- (1) "to desire, strive for."

Related: Wished; wishing. Wishing well as an enchanted water hole attested by 1819.