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Flashcards in Hard Rock Deck (30):


- vocals (usually male)
- two guitars (rhythm & lead)
- keyboards
- bass
- drums


Performance and Arrangement

- powerful vocals usually delivered in a high register (screaming level)
- guitars play riffs using power chords (root & dominant chords)
- fast soloing with high degree of technical ability
- pentatonic/blues/modal/chromatic scales used regularly for solos and riffs
- driving rhythm called ‘chugging’ used by guitar, drums and bass
- keyboard not used in a lead role
- drums feature a lot of cymbals and toms and can be very technical


Technology and Production

- Distortion and Valve amp sound create a huge guitar sound
- Fuzz, Wah-Wah and phaser are the main effects used
- Feedback and finger tapping techniques
- Drums and bass create a thick and heavy sound
- Large reverbs



- Blues
- British blues
- R&B
- Prog Rock
- Psychedelic Rock


The Kinks

- ‘You Really Got Me Going’


The Yard Birds

- Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page


Jimmy Hendrix

- From Seattle
- Everybody looked up to him. Pioneered distortion, wah-wah, feedback
- More blues, didn’t get the repetitive riffs



- Split up in 1968
- Transformed American blues into British psychedelic rock
- Heavy riffs, pounding drums, wailing guitar & screaming vocals


Arthur Brown

- Sinister theatricality and extreme vocal range inspired many
- Violent energy, nightmarish
- Although they came from the type on the hippies they weren’t part of the movement


The Doors, Vanilla Fudge & Iron Butterfly

- American bands
- Flamboyant and psychedelic
- Vanilla Fudge: great musicianship but didn’t hold the heaviness. Hugely influential to rock - first time thought of Hard Rock as supposed to Rock&Roll


Blue Cheer

- The heaviest, loudest and grungiest band


The Edgar Broughton Band

- Underground trio
- UK band
- ‘Psychopath’ on 2nd album


Led Zeppelin

- They were the catalyst
- Guitar based, very riffy
- Classiness about them


Black Sabbath

- Birmingham based
- Working class
- The name came from the Boris Karloff movies ‘Black Sabbath’
- Began writing original material that reflected their fascination and fear of the dark side
- Nobody was talking about the evil so it seemed an ideal thing to talk about in their music
- Their music reflected the tough reality
- Many we’re convinced that they were a Satanic band and deserved to die


Uriah Heep

- Heavy Organ and guitar driven sound
- Down South
- Late 60s mix of blues, prog rock and folk
- Very Heavy
- Did acoustic covers as well
- Getting following through live shows


Deep Purple

- Formed in 1967
- 3 albums by 1969
- ‘Hush’ hit single
- 4th album in 1970
- Vanilla Fudge influenced the band & Hendrix
- Hammond Organ used
- Gillan (vocalist) could scream to a top A in full voice


What did metal bands sing about?

The angst, the pain and difficult things in life



- Chopping licks: big gaps and there’s drums in that gap
- They got signed at the same time as Black Sabbath and had to wait until they finished their demos say they could do theirs


How has symphonic music inflicted Hard Rock?

- The dark heavy sound and it’s powerful dynamic range owed a debt to the shock and awe of symphonic music


Judas Priest

- Faster form of metal sounding rock
- Birmingham based
- Their style was less gloomy and pumped up with the volume of two guitars (lead and rhythm)
- Stereo chord sound
- Very positive outlook lyrically
- They took the heavy metal look further: coloured spandex, metal uniform of tight leather and metal studs & bike


Robert Plant

- The Americans loved him
- Ambivalent sexuality


Janis Joplin

- Blues singer
- Unusual for a girl to put on such a masculine display


Who were the typical Hard Rock audiences?

- Boys and men absorbed in displays tribal head banging, air guitar playing to a music which didn’t seem to appeal much to women
- Metal became a male domain because of the life style, the denim and leather, the patches, the collectibility
- Audiences also dressed exactly like their favourite bands


Who is Neal Kay?

- DJ Neal Kay established the first real home for Rock “The Soundhouse”
- Street driven
- They built a scene of their own
- The people who came to the club were impressed with the great sound system
- The people wanted to be as close to the music as they could get


Rob Loonhouse

Had a guitar with no strings and played perfectly the guitar solos



- 1975 Motörhead


1976 Punk

- Punk fans didn’t care much about Metal
- Gave rock a kick, faster, aggressive
- The Damned and Motörhead toured together


The Wave of British Heavy Metal

- Diamond Head, Iron Maiden, Saxon had grown up in a different kind of world - a world of strikes, 3 working days and Winter of Discontent
- They emerged as The Iron Lady was elected



- Treated like the ‘bad boys’ it wasn’t real music
- Wrote about motorbikes and steam trains, fighter pilots on drugs
- Aggressive and fast music
- Great guitar riff, vocal


Iron Maiden

- Punk aggression
- Bruce Dickinson vocalist
- The Beast broke the charts with N1