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Flashcards in Sampling Deck (25):
1

What is a sample?

A sample is a static representation of a wave form over time.

2

What is sample rate and how does it affect the sample?

- How many samples per second are taken to produce the digital audio signal
- The more samples are taken = higher accuracy compared to the original acoustic sound
- These samples analyse volume and frequency

3

What is bit resolution and how does it effect the sample?

- Dictates the effectiveness of the dynamic range
- The higher the bit depth = the more increments between the quietest to the loudest sound

4

What is Fairlight CMI 1979 capable of?

- The Fairlight was designed as a digital synthesises on which waveforms could be constructed or drawn using additive synthesis, or drawn using the innovative light pen or touch screen.
- It was also possible to define start and end waveforms and ‘morth’ between two to create dynamic tonal movement throughout the course of a more.
- Had a sequences
- The world’s first ‘workstation’

5

What is sampling?

The act of capturing an amplitude over time

6

What is a sampler?

A sampler is a musical instrument that stores recorded sound digitally using RAM or ROM memory

7

How much was the Fairlight CMI?

£20,000 in 1980

8

Name 3 songs that used the Fairlight CMI

1. Kate Bush’s album ‘Never Forever’
2. Geoff Downes of Yes used the CMI on your for the album ‘Drama’
3. Stevie Wonder used it on tour of the album ‘Stevie Wonder’s Journey Through “The Secret Life of Plants”’

9

What synthesis does the Synclavier offer?

Additive and FM synthesis

10

Who created the Synclavier?

It was manufactured by New England Digital Corporation if Norwich, Vermont, USA.

11

What was the Synclavier’s advantage over the Fairlight CMI?

- It was the first instrument to combine FM and Additive synthesis, audio sampling, hard-disk recording, 200-track sequencing, graphic waveform analysis, music-notation printing, and a velocity sensitive keyboard.
- Fairlight had less memory storage than Synclaviers, but cost substantially less
- Fairlight had a pattern-based sequencer that was attractive to remixers and dance music - had lower than compact disk sample rate which made them sound punchier and compressed
- Fairlight was good for low-fi orchestra hits in dance music
- Synclavier: good for laying individual orchestral parts - used for film soundtracks

12

How much was the emulator sampler?

$10,000 in 1981 but reduced its price to $8,000 a year later

13

Why was the Emulator Sampler beneficial?

Because it was the first affordable compact modern sampler that could be used by ordinary people, as well as, in live performances.

14

Who bought the serial number 001 because they were so impressed by it?

Stevie Wonder but David Bowie, Depeche Mode, Herbie Hancock, Phillip Glass are among those who have ask used the Emulator in their songs.

15

What equipment did the emulator sampler have?

- floppy disk-based keyboard workstation
- it recorded short samples that could be played back as musical notes on the keyboard
- it had a split keyboard which meant that you had two load to identical floppy disks in each drive to get the same sound across the keyboard
- simple filter
- allowed for a single loop
- the initial model didn’t include a VCA

16

What was superior to the AKAI S900 compared to already existing samplers?

- first rack-mount samplers to use a built-in disk drive
- 12 bit Stereo sampling, 7.5kHz to 40kHz variable sample rates
- up to 63 seconds of sample
- could store 32 samples to the disk

17

Name one famous artist who used the AKAI S900 in their career.

Moby, Dr Dre, Depeche Mode

18

What type of display does the AKAI S900 have?

LCD Display

You read the command options on the screen and tell the unit what task you want to perform by using the ‘magic cursor arrow’, ‘the control knob’ and ‘keypad’.

19

What was introduced to the sampler world that featured on the AKAI S900? Explain how it worked.

Crossfade looping

20

What is copyright?

Copyright is a legal right that grants the creator of an original work (published or unpublished) exclusive rights for its use and distribution.

21

How did copyright effect the use of samples and samplers?

Artists had to pay copyright fees to the owner of the music and the copyright holder of the actual recording.

22

What’s the definition of ‘Buyout’?

Is the purchase of rights to sample a song

23

What’s the definition of ‘Rollover Rates’?

These fees added to the cost depending on how many units were sold

24

Name one example where copyright has affected the artists and their song, explain what happened.

Public Enemy claim that they had to change the group’s sound as a result to restrictive copyright rules.

25

How did the software sampler work?

A soft sampler is like a synthesiser. It uses an audio file as an oscillator that it’s played back by pressing the keys on the MIDI keyboard. Unlike the hardware sampler that could only store a few seconds worth of audio, the soft sampler can now manipulate nearly an unlimited number of samples.