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Flashcards in Hardscaping and Paving Deck (19)
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1

What are the four things hardscaping and paving do?

1. ALL PAVEMENTS ARE COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
2. SUPPORT TRAFFIC LOADS: PEDESTRIAN, CYCLIST, VEHICLE
3. IMPART SCALE, PATTERN
4. AFFECT RUN-OFF RATES, STORM-WATER QUALITY

2

What are the five layers of Hardscaping?

PAVEMENT
BASE
SUB-BASE
SUB GRADE
PAVEMENT EDGE

3

What are the three things that pavement does?

1. RECEIVES TRAFFIC WEAR
2. PROTECTS BASE
3. TRANSFERS LOADS TO BASE CLASSIFIED AS RIGID OR FLEXIBLE, MONOLITHIC OR UNIT

4

What are the three things a rigid pavement does?

1. DISTRIBUTE LOADS INTERNALLY
2. TRANSMIT LOADS OVER BROADER AREA THAN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
3. REINFORCED CONCRETE MORTARED UNIT PAVERS ON REINFORCED CONCRETE BASE

5

What are the four things/characteristics a flexible pavement does?

1. RESILIENT
2. DISTRIBUTE LOADS DOWN THROUGH SUB-BASE
3. CHARACTERIZED BY THIN WEARING SURFACES AND RELATIVELY THICK BASES AND SUB-BASES
4. ASPHALT (FLEXIBLE, MONOLITHIC) BRICK ON SAND SETTING BED (FLEXIBLE, UNIT)

6

3 Base characteristics

1. WELL-GRADED AGGREGATE FOUNDATION
2. TRANSFERS LOAD TO SUB-BASE OR SUB-GRADE
3. PREVENTS UPWARD MIGRATION OF CAPILLARY WATER

7

3 Sub-base characteristics

1. FOR HEAVY DUTY PAVEMENTS
2. AN ADDITIONAL BASE MATERIAL
3. CLEAN, BUT COARSE GRADED AGGREGATES

8

4 Subgrade characteristics

1. THICKNESS DEPENDENT ON BEARING CAPACITY, PERMEABILITY, FROST LINE
2. SHOULD BE UNDISTURBED EARTH OR COMPACTED FILL
3 MUST BE SLOPED TO DRAIN INFILTRATION WATER
4. CONDITION HAS LESS EFFECT ON RIGID PAVEMENT’S THICKNESS; CRITICAL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT’S THICKNESS

9

4 Edge characteristics

1. LOCATED AT PERIMETER PREVENTS BREAKING OR CRUMBLING BY EXTENDING SUB BASE BEYOND
2. PAVEMENT EDGE
3. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS MAY HAVE EDGE OR CURB FOR LATERAL SUPPORT
4. WOOD, STEEL, CONCRETE, STONE, MASONRY

10

What are the 6 design criteria of hardscape and paving

1. FUNCTION + TRAFFIC TYPE
2. LOAD BEARING CAPACITY
3. DURABILITY: CLIMATE, SITE PREP, MATERIAL, INSTALLATION
4. SAFETY: TRACTION, WEATHERING
5. AESTHETICS: PATTERN, COLOR (URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT), GLARE
6. COST: SHORT AND LONG TERM

11

What are ten materials used for hardcaping and paving?

ASPHALT
REINFORCED CONCRETE
UNIT PAVING GRANITE
LIMESTONE
SANDSTONE
SLATE
POROUS PAVING GRIDS
TURFBLOCK
SOIL STABILIZING AGENTS

12

Characteristics of Asphalt

1. made up of ASPHALT CEMENT, COARSE AND FINE AGGREGATES (60-90% OF MIX)
2. SURFACE COURSE, BASE COURSE, TACK COAT, AGGREGATE BASE
3. HOT MIX (275-325F): PLANT MIXED
4. WARM MIX (200-275F): FOAM PROCESS, MINERAL ADDITIVE, ORGANIC ADDITVE,CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BINDER
5. COLD MIX (60F): EMULSIFIED AND CUTBACK
6. THICKNESS: TWICE NOMINAL MAXIMUM AGGEGATE SIZE, MINIMUM;SET BY TRAFFIC CLASS, VOLUME, SUBGRADE
7. 2 TO 7 PERCENT VOIDS FOR EXPANSION AND COMPACTION OF AGGREGATESCAN BE POROUS USING OPEN GRADED COURSE WITH 14-18 PERCENT VOIDS

13

3 Reinforced Concrete Characteristics

1. FINISHES: EXPOSED AGGREGATE (VARIOUS), BROOM, BURLAP, STAMPED
2. COLORED: INTEGRAL, TWO-COURSE METHOD, SEEDING
3. JOINTS: EXPANSION (ISOLATION), CONTROL (CONTRACTION), CONSTRUCTION

14

6 characteristics of porous concrete

1. UNIFORMLY GRADED COARSE AGGREGATE
2. 11-21 PERCENT PORE SPACES
3. TYPICALLY 6 INCHES THICK OVER 4 INCH AGGREGATE BASE COARSE
4. REQUIRES MORE PORTLAND CEMENT THAN STANDARD CONCRETE
5. CONCERNS WITH FLY ASH DUE TO INADEQUATE CURING
6. RAKED INTO PLACE

15

6 characteristics of unit paving

1. BRICK, CONCRETE, ASPHALT
2. VARIETY OF COLORS AND PATTERNS
3. EASILY REPAIRED
4. CAN BE RIGID OR FLEXIBLE, PERMEABLE OR IMPERMEABLE
5. HIGH INSTALLATION COST, DIFFICULT TO CLEAN
6. SUSCEPTIBLE TO DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT

16

4 types of stone

1. GRANITE: HARD, DENSE, DURABLE, EXPENSIVE, DIFFICULT TO WORK
2. LIMESTONE: EASY TO WORK, SUSCEPTIBLE TO CHEMICAL WEATHERING
3. SANDSTONE: EASY TO WORK, DURABLE, SUSCEPTIBLE TO CHEMICAL WEATHERING
4. SLATE: DURABLE, SLOW TO WEATHER, CAN BE SLIPPERY

17

4 characteristics of porous paving grids

1. SYSTEMS FOR TURF, GRAVEL
2. DECREASES RUNOFF, INCREASES INFILTRATION 3. SUPPORTS VEHICLE LOADS, HEAVY PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC
4. FIRE LANES, EMERGENCY ACCESS, PARKING LOTS, AMPHITHEATERS, EVENT SURFACES

18

4 characteristics of turf block

INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVERSCELLS FILLED WITH SOIL, SAND, GRAVELAID INFILTRATION, REDUCE RUN-OFFSUPPORT VEHICLE LOADS FOR EMERGENCY VEHICLES, PARKING

19

Soil stabalizing agent characteristics

1. LIQUID ACRYLIC OR ORGANIC POLYMERS
2. INCREASE SOIL ADHESION, ABRASION RESISTANCE, FLEXURAL STRENGTH, AND DURABILITY
3. STABILIZE SUBGRADE, IMPROVE WEARING SURFACE