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GEOL 101: Intro to Geology > Hawaii > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hawaii Deck (12)
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Explain the origin and influence of Earth’s mechanical layers.


  • Compositional Layers
    1. Crust - Oceanic and Continental
    2. Mantle 
    3. Core
  • Mechanical Layers
    1. Lithosphere - rigid
    2. Asthenosphere - taffy, flows more easily
    3. Mesosphere - Still flows, but is more solid
    4. Outer Core - True Liquid magma
    5. Inner Core - Solid


  • Compositional Layers
    • Differentiated by chemical composition
  • Mechanical Layers
    • Differentiated by behavior

The influence is huge in plate tectonics and volcanic activity. The Asthenosphere provides a gel like surface for the rigid lithospheric plates to slide accross. As the asthenosphere rises to weak points and cracks in the lithosphere, it decompresses and melts into magma. This causes igneous intrusions.
The compositional layers change what minerals we find in rock features.
*check on the significance of the compositional layers?


How and where do hot spots form?

From deep within the earth, heat rises through the mantle in a plume. High heat and low pressure cause this plume to melt once it reaches the lithosphere. It seeps through weak points.


Explain how and where magma forms.

Magma makes a hot spot, so the explanation is the same. The center of the earth is extremely hot. It needs to vent off that heat. The heat rises through the mantle in plumes. Those plumes are areas of high heat, and as pressure decreases, it melts, becoming magma. This melting occures in the upper mantle and crust (or lithosphere)


How do minerals crystallize from magma to form igneous rocks?



Explore and explain various geological features of the Hawaiian Islands.



Determine the age of a rock.



Understand the importance of the magnetic field and how it changes.



Use the Hawaiian Island chain to demonstrate the principle of isostacy.



Diagram the workings of the hydrologic cycle.



Explain how rocks weather and erode.



Understand the differences between clastic and chemical sedimentation.



Use independent methods to determine the motion of the Pacific Plate.