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Flashcards in HD10 Orofacial infections Deck (48)
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Pharyngitis can be caused by these pathogens:

1)Streptococcal pharyngitis
ß-haemolytic streptococci (Groups A, C, G)
2) genus: Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (similar to streptococci on agar but are gram positive vacilli). Can cause bacterial pharyngitis,
3)• Corynebacterium diphtheriae/ulcerans/pseudotuberculosis: in rare cases we look for this bacteria where people aren’t vaccinated against diphtheria.(vaccinations won’t have occurred in developing countries)


On blood agar, what colour is alpha haemolysis?
2) partial or full?

1) green
2) partial


On blood agar, what colour is beta haemolysis?
2) partial or full?

1) yellow
2) full


What is quinsy?

peritonsillar abscess ( s a rare and potentially serious complication of tonsilitis). The abscess ( a collection of pus) forms between one of your tonsils and the wall of your throat


What is the treatment of quinsy?

drainage as it is an abscess


What group of bacteria are we concerned may be present in patients with pharyngitis?

Group A streptococci


What things can group A streptococci cause?

1. phayngitis
2. quinsy
3. sepsis
4.rheumatic fever
5. glomerulonephritis
6. scarlet fever


What antibiotic is prescribed for a suspected infection (either scarlet fever or sepsis) caused by group A streptococci?

pencillin, as it always works against strep


What is glomerulonephritis?
2) How long does it take to present following a sore throat?

inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli)
2. weeks


What are the clinical presentations of scarlet fever?
2) How long does it take to present following a sore throat?

1) sand paper like rash on skin
2) days


What antibiotics can be used if a patient is allergic to penicillin?

Tetracyclines (e.g. doxycycline), quinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin), macrolides (e.g. clarithromycin), aminoglycosides (e.g. gentamicin) and glycopeptides


What are the red flags for sepsis?

A suspected/ proven infection +
1. saO2 is less than 90% therefore supplemental O2 required
2. RR is morethan 25
3. lactate is more than 2
4. HR is less more than 130
5. systolic BP is less than 90
6. AVPU (so not fully awake i.e. responds to only voice or pain , doesn't respond
purpuric rash


Why else other than sepsis do patients present with a purpuric rash?
2) What can be done to confirm its sepsis?

1. trauma, aspiration pneumonia and burns
2. blood tests


If sepsis is suspected what is the treatment?

3 in and 3 out

In: O2, fluids and antibiotics
Out: lactate, urine and blood cultures


What percentage of the flora in quinsy is by group A streptococcus



Corynebacterium diphtheriae
1) What is the pathological thing of this bacterium?
2) WHat does it do?
3) Who gets infections?

Diphtheria toxin
2) inhibits protein synthesis
3) Non-immunized children under 15


What infection is this:
Asymmetrical, greyish white membrane, especially if it extends to the uvula and soft palate. That can be removed with instruments. They may also have difficulty breathing.

Corynebacterium diphtheriae


What infection is this?
Serosanguineous nasal discharge

Corynebacterium diphtheriae


Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
How does it affect the population?
2) Presentation
3) What is the route of infection?
4)How does it differ from streptococcus on agar?

1)Sporadic cases in young adults
2)Chronic skin ulcers
3) Throat and wound infections
4) is also cocci but is gram positive (and thus alpha haemolytic while streptococcus is beta)


What are dentoalveolar infections?
2) What sampling for microbial analysis should be carried out and why?

infection of teeth and their sockets
2) take samples of the pus not swabs, as swabs will come back so oral flora which isn't helpful


What is a severe consequence of a dentoalveolar infection if untreated?



without getting it shitty anatomy just think basic, where does the infection spread to from the tooth to get to the blood (sepsis)?

1. apical foramen
2. periodontal ligament
3. blood stream (as there are periapical blood vessels there)


patient presents with fever , what's the probable diagnosis
1) lumps in neck unilateral
2) lumps in neck bilateral

1) dentoalveolar infection thats now caused sepsis
2) mumps


What are antibiotics ineffective against abscesses/ dentoalveolar infections?

Many bacteria cause abscesses therefore antibiotics are ineffective


Whats another word for salivary gland infection?
2) whats the most common cause?
3) who do you suspect this in?
4) if the salivary gland infection is caused by bacteria , how does this work?

1) sialadenitis
2) mumps
3) non-immunized teenagers
4) Bacterial infections are generally caused by endogenous oral flora, secondary to diseases causing reduced salivary flow , possible due to stones this will require surgery


Osteomyelitis is not an infection, and more often affects the lower jaw.
true or false



What is the TP fro osteomyelitis

Requires weeks of antibiotic treatment, if that doesn’t work look for where it is being sequestered.
(errr this is wrong for alveolar osteomyelitis me thinks, as you treat with chlorohexidine syringe wash out and grass stuff packed)


what are the complications of osteomyelitis of the jaw?

• cutaneous abscesses & fistulae (pus in a confined space, so abscess is pointed out so exits through the skin, these infections are difficult to treat through antibiotics alone and will require surgery)
• cellulitis


Which is more commonly affected by osteomyelitis, maxilla or mandible?

mandible- poorer blood supply


If osteomyelitis is due to an infected tooth, TP ?