Flashcards in Head And Neck Deck (309)
Which blood vessels make up the upper systemic vascular loop?
Internal, external and anterior jugular veins and common carotid and vertebral arteries
Where does the RCC arise from
Brachii cephalic trunk, behind the right sternoclavicular joint.
Where do the common carotids terminate?
Between angle of mandible and mastoid upper boarder of thyroid cartilage. C4 is bifurcation
Uses of carotid massage
Alleviate supra ventricular tachycardia
What is the carotid body
Location of peripheral chemoreceptors which detect arterial O2. Different from baroreceptors. Between internal and external. CNIX (glossy pharyngeal nerve)
Where does ICC enter skull?
Branches of external carotid.
Nerves and arteries in parotid?
External to maxillary and superficial temporal. Also facial nerve and retro mandible vein.
Describe the vertebral arteries
From the subclavian. Through the transverse foramen of 1-6. Supply brain
Describe the carotid triangle.
Medially- superior belly of omohyoid.
Also has vagus and hypoglossal nerves,
Layers of scalp
Loose connective tissue
Loose connective tissue (with vessels)
Blood supply of scalp
Occipital, superficial temporal and posterior auricular. Also supratrochlear and supra orbital from ophthalmic from internal carotid. All anastomose.
Lacerations made worse by contraction of occiptofrontalis.
Same veins but deep parts can drain to the pterygoid venous plexus.
Also valveless emissary veins to the diploic vein to the dural venous sinuses.- infection
Blood supply to skull and dura
Middle meningeal artery (ant and post) a branch of the maxillary. Near to the pterion.
Describe the angular vein
Supra orbital and supratrochlear veins drain into it. Located medial to eye socket?. Drains into facial vein
Access to cranial cavity
Bone and skin flap reflected inferiorly to preserve blood supply.
Explain dural venous sinuses
Endothelium lined spaces between the periosteum and meningeal layers of Dura forming dural septal which receive blood from the large veins draining the brain. Eventually drain into jugular.
Origin of lateral nasal and angular arteries?
Describe the cavernous sinus
A plexus of extremely thin-walled veins on the upper side of the sphenoid bone. (Above pterygoid plexus which it drains into)
Also contains internal carotid artery.
Positions of jugular veins in neck
Internal under SCM, external is on top/across
Terminal group of lymphatics?
Deep cervical- all afferent lymph vessels of the head and neck.
Then to jugular lymph trunk then to brachiocephalic between SC and IJV
How are the cranial nerves numbered and what is the exception?
Rostro-cranial. CNXII before CNXI
Sense of smell (olfaction) - entirely senosry
Through cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone where they form the olfactory bulb
Loss of sense of smell is known as?
Anosmia (can occur in URTI)
Does CNI go through thalamus? clinical significance?
No, can 'reboot' brain with strong stimulus
Sensory, sub serves vision. Colour, visual acuity, visual fields, reflexes, fundoscopy
Brain tract not nerve. Crossing over e.c.t.