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0

Which blood vessels make up the upper systemic vascular loop?

Internal, external and anterior jugular veins and common carotid and vertebral arteries

1

Where does the RCC arise from

Brachii cephalic trunk, behind the right sternoclavicular joint.

2

Where do the common carotids terminate?

Between angle of mandible and mastoid upper boarder of thyroid cartilage. C4 is bifurcation

3

Uses of carotid massage

Alleviate supra ventricular tachycardia

4

What is the carotid body

Location of peripheral chemoreceptors which detect arterial O2. Different from baroreceptors. Between internal and external. CNIX (glossy pharyngeal nerve)

5

Where does ICC enter skull?

Carotid canal

6

Branches of external carotid.

SALFOPMS
Superior thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal
Lingual
Facial
Occipital
Posterior auricular
Maxillary
Superficial temporal

7

Nerves and arteries in parotid?

External to maxillary and superficial temporal. Also facial nerve and retro mandible vein.

8

Describe the vertebral arteries

From the subclavian. Through the transverse foramen of 1-6. Supply brain

9

Describe the carotid triangle.

Superior digastric
Laterally SCM
Medially- superior belly of omohyoid.
Also has vagus and hypoglossal nerves,
Larynx,
Pharynx
Thyroid gland
Cervical plexus

10

Layers of scalp

Skin
Loose connective tissue
Aponeurosis
Loose connective tissue (with vessels)
Periosteum

11

Blood supply of scalp

Occipital, superficial temporal and posterior auricular. Also supratrochlear and supra orbital from ophthalmic from internal carotid. All anastomose.
Lacerations made worse by contraction of occiptofrontalis.
Same veins but deep parts can drain to the pterygoid venous plexus.
Also valveless emissary veins to the diploic vein to the dural venous sinuses.- infection

12

Blood supply to skull and dura

Middle meningeal artery (ant and post) a branch of the maxillary. Near to the pterion.

13

Describe the angular vein

Supra orbital and supratrochlear veins drain into it. Located medial to eye socket?. Drains into facial vein

14

Describe craniotomies

Access to cranial cavity
Bone and skin flap reflected inferiorly to preserve blood supply.

15

Explain dural venous sinuses

Endothelium lined spaces between the periosteum and meningeal layers of Dura forming dural septal which receive blood from the large veins draining the brain. Eventually drain into jugular.

16

Origin of lateral nasal and angular arteries?

Facial

17

Describe the cavernous sinus

A plexus of extremely thin-walled veins on the upper side of the sphenoid bone. (Above pterygoid plexus which it drains into)
Also contains internal carotid artery.
CN3,4,6,5

18

Positions of jugular veins in neck

Internal under SCM, external is on top/across

19

Terminal group of lymphatics?

Deep cervical- all afferent lymph vessels of the head and neck.
Then to jugular lymph trunk then to brachiocephalic between SC and IJV

20

How are the cranial nerves numbered and what is the exception?

Rostro-cranial. CNXII before CNXI

21

Name CNI

Olfactory Nerve

22

Function CNI

Sense of smell (olfaction) - entirely senosry

23

Anatimy CNI

Through cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone where they form the olfactory bulb

24

Loss of sense of smell is known as?

Anosmia (can occur in URTI)

25

Does CNI go through thalamus? clinical significance?

No, can 'reboot' brain with strong stimulus

26

Name CNII

Optic

27

Function CNII

Sensory, sub serves vision. Colour, visual acuity, visual fields, reflexes, fundoscopy

28

ANatomy CNII

Brain tract not nerve. Crossing over e.c.t.

29

Uses of CNII assessment

Visual field defects, early signs of meningitis, tumours, elevated CSF pressure