Head and neck anatomy- week one, module one Flashcards Preview

M - Year 2 anatomy (Rachel) > Head and neck anatomy- week one, module one > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head and neck anatomy- week one, module one Deck (51)
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1

What is the skull broadly divided into?

The neurocranium (upper back part of the skull) The Viscerocranium (Facial Skull) The Mandible (Lower Jaw)

2

What is the most common type of joint seen between most bones in the skull?

fibrous joint- sutures - bound by Sharpey's fibres (only found between flat structures)

3

Most bones of the skull are made up of an external and internal layer of compact bone separated by spongy bone known as?

Diploe

4

Label this diagram

5

Where is the red marrow housed?

In the diploe

6

Label the diagram

7

Where is the external auditory meatus?

8

What type of joint are sutures?

Fibrous joint

9

Where do the sagittal suture lie between?

Between the parietal bone

10

What does the coronal suture lie between?

lies between Frontal and Parietal bone

11

What does the lambdoid suture lie between?

Pariental and occipital 

12

What are fontanelles?

Areas of fibrous tissue.

- Bones of the skull are not fused in young children and so are connected by fontanelles

13

Bulging or depressions of fontanelles can be a sign of what?

A number of clinical conditions which will need investigated

14

Which fontanelles would close first?

The posterior fontanelles

15

What are the type of bones are the bones of the facial skeleton?

Mainly irregular bones

- they give attatchment to muscles of the toungue, mastication and pharynx

16

Label this diagram

17

What bony prominence is A and what bone does it belong to?

Occipital protuberance

Part of the occipital bone

18

What bony prominence is B and what bone does it belong to?

Mastoid process

A part of the temporal bone

19

What bony prominence is C and what bone does it belong to?

Zygomatic arch

 

Made up of the zygomatic bone and the temporal bone

20

What bony prominence is D and which bone is it a apart of?

Styloid process 

Part of the temporal bone

21

What bony prominence is E and what bone does it belong to?

occipital condyles

part of the occipital bones

22

Which bondy prominences can be palpated?

Occipital protuberance, Mastoid process and Zygomatic arch

23

Where does the scalp extend to?

Anteriorly until the eyebrows

Posteriorly till the superior nuchal lines

 Laterally as far as the superior temporal line and provides an attachment for muscle bellies.

24

What bone is  the superior nuchal line a part of?

The occipital bone

25

What two bones form the zygomatic arch?

Anteriorly: Zygomatic Bone

Posteriorly: Temporal Bone

26

What do the layers of the skull divide the floor of the skull into? 

The floor of the skull is on three levels dividing the cranial cavity into three fossae

27

What are the 3 layers of the skull floor?

1.     Anterior cranial fossa

2.     Middle cranial fossa

3.     Posterior cranial fossa

28

What bone can be clearly visulaised here and what layer does it make up?

The sphenoid bone and it makes up most of the middle cranial fossa

29

Label the sphenoid bone

30

What are the five layers of the scalp?

Skin

Connective Tissue

Aponeurosis of the occipitofrontal msucle (epicrainial aponeurosis)

Loose areolar tissue

Pericrainum 

(N.B these two final layers are usually not easily visable)

31

label this diagram

32

What layer of the scalp does the epicranial aponeurosis make up?

Third layer of the scalp

This aponeurosis connects the anterior (frontal) and posterior (occipital) bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle

33

What nerve innervates the area in front of the red line?

Cranial Nerve V (Cr.N.5)

Trigeminal

34

What nerve innervates the area behind the red line?

C 2, 3, 4

spinal nerves

35

What cervical spinal nerve has no cutaneous innervation?

C1

No bit of skin is innervated by C1

36

What happens to C5-T1?

Ventral rami

- go away and form the brachial plexus 

37

Label this diagram

38

Describe spinal nerves

Both Ventral (motor) and Dorsal (sensory)

They only carry sympathetic fibres

White rami communicans takes away 

grey rami carrues back 

Only the sympatetic Ganglion

39

Describe crainial nerves

can have sensory, motor and parasympatetic fibres

Some have all, some have one only

40

How does the parasympatetic fibres make its way back to the trunk?

Via the vagus nerve (cranial nerve)

41

42

What fibres can the cranial nerves potentially carry?

Sensory 

- general sensory (Touch, temp, pain)

- special sensory (vision, hearing, smell, taste)

 

motor

sympathetic

43

44

What fibres does Cr.N. 5 (trigeminal) carry?

Sensory- General sensation- dermatomes of the face

But can also carry motor fibres

NO PARASYMPATHETIC 

45

What does the facial nerve carry?

The facial nerve carries special sensation of taste, motor and parasympathetic

46

How do sympathetic fibres reavh areas supplied by cranial nerves?

Postganglionic fibres from the sympathetic chain form a plexus and hitch a ride with the blood vessels

47

How many branches does crainial nerve 5 have (trigenimal) and what are these branches called?

Opthalmic division (V1)- forehead and upper part of the eye

Maxillary divison (V2)- sensory to the upper jawbone

Mandibular (V3)- lower jaw 

 

All are general sensory (Temp, pain) no special sensors

however V3 also has motor fibres 

NO PARASYMPATHETIC FIBRES

48

What is the anterior part of the scalp (anterior to the auricle or external ear) supplied by?

It is supplied by the branches of the trigeminal nerve 

49

What supplies the posterior half of the scalp?

In the posterior half of the scalp (posterior to the auricle) nerve supply is from cutaneous branches of cervical spinal nerves C2 and C3. 

Both the anterior and posterior rami of these spinal nerves supply the scalp

50

Label the sensory supply to the regions arrowed

 

51

What structure forms from the ventral rami of C5 to T1 and what does it innervate?