Head And Neck Session 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head And Neck Session 1 Deck (115):
1

What forms the primitive gut tube by the end of week 4?

Folding of the embryo

2

Describe the embryonic face and neck at the beginning of week 4.

No distinguishing external features
Accounts for approx. 1/2 length of the embryo

3

What forms a complex tissue system that involves the heart, great vessels, brain and special sensory organs?

Pharyngeal arches

4

How many pharyngeal arches are there?

5

5

What does each pharyngeal arch consist of?

Mesoderm core
Ectoderm and endoderm covering
Artery
Nerve
Cartilage bar

6

What causes the frontonasal prominence to arise?

Swelling of the neural tube

7

How are the pharyngeal arches numbered?

1-6

8

How does the size of the pharyngeal arches change as you move from 1 through to 6?

Become progressively smaller

9

Which areas of the brain are predominantly involved in the pharyngeal arches?

Midbrain
Hindbrain

10

What are the 3 vesicle stages of neural tube development?

Prosencephalon = forebrain
Mesencephalon = midbrain
Rhombencephalon = hindbrain

11

How can the cranial nerves be classified?

Function
Embryological origin

12

Which cranial nerves are not derived from the mid- or hindbrain?

I and II (olfactory and optic)

13

Which cranial nerves have mixed sensory and motor functions to supple the derivatives of the pharyngeal arches?

V-Trigeminal
VII-facial
IX-glossopharyngeal
X-vagus

14

Which cranial nerves are involved in the development of the pharynx and tongue?

XI-accessory
XII-hypoglossal

15

Where does the facial skeleton derive from?

PA1 and frontonasal prominence

16

Where do the muscles of mastication arise from?

PA1

17

What innervation does cranial nerve V, the Trigeminal nerve, provide?

Sensory: skin of face, lining of mouth and nose
Motor: muscles of mastication and muscles derived from mandibular process

18

What does PA1 divide into?

Maxillary and mandibular processes

19

What is Meckel's cartilage?

Prominent ossified cartilage of mandibular prominence of PA1 that forms template of mandible

20

What process allows formation of the mandible from Meckel's cartilage?

Membranous ossification

21

What happens to the aortic arch of PA1?

Disappears

22

What happens to the aortic arch of PA2?

Disappears

23

Where do the muscles of facial expression derive from?

PA2

24

Which cranial nerve is associated with PA2?

VII-facial nerve

25

Which cranial nerve is associated with PA1?

V-Trigeminal

26

What structures does the facial nerve pass through?

Stylomastoid foramen
Parotid gland

27

What function does the facial nerve have?

Motor: muscles of facial expression
Sensory: taste buds in anterior 2/3 of tongue

28

Which PA is associated with Reichert's cartilage?

2

29

What does Reichert's cartilage develop into?

Middle ear development --> stapes
Styloid process, lesser cornu and upper body of hyoid bone

30

Which muscles derives from PA3?

Stylopharyngeus

31

Which cranial nerve derives from PA3?

IX-glossopharyngeal nerve

32

What function does the glossopharyngeal nerve have?

Motor: stylopharyngeus
Sensory: general and special innervation to posterior 1/3 of tongue and pharynx

33

What does the cartilage of PA3 form?

Remainder of hyoid bone

34

What happens to the aortic arch of PA3?

Forms internal carotid

35

Which muscles derive from PA4?

Cricothyroid
Levator palatini
Constrictors of pharynx

36

Which cranial nerve is associated with PA4?

X-Vagus nerve

37

What is the 4th arch branch of the vagus nerve?

Superior laryngeal nerve-supplies cricothyroid and pharynx constrictors

38

What happens to the aortic arch of PA4?

Forms arch of aorta on the L
Forms brachiocephalic artery on R

39

What does the mesenchyme of PA4 become?

Epiglottis

40

Where do the cartilages of the larynx derive from?

Cartilage bars of PA4

41

What are the three cartilages of the larynx?

Thyroid
Arytenoid
Cricoid

42

Where do the intrinsic muscles of the larynx derive from?

PA6

43

What happens to the aortic arch of PA6?

Forms pulmonary arch

44

Which cranial nerve is associated with PA6?

X-vagus

45

What is the 6th arch branch of the vagus nerve?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve supplying intrinsic muscles of the larynx

46

What does the mesenchyme of PA6 form?

Epiglottis

47

What do the cartilage bars of PA6 form?

Thyroid
Arytenoid
Cricoid cartilages

48

What does the size of cartilage bar associated with a PA depend on?

Size of PA itself

49

What do the cartilage bars of each PA derive from?

Neural crest cells

50

What lies in the floor of the primitive pharynx?

Aortic sac
Mesenchyme of 4th and 6th PA

51

What forms the palatine tonsil?

Epithelial proliferation followed by lymphoid precursor colonisation of 2nd pharyngeal pouch

52

Where do the parathyroid glands derive from?

Dorsal aspect of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches (3rd inferior and 4th superior)

53

Where does the thymus derive from?

Ventral aspect of the 3rd and 4th pouches (2 lobes migrate)

54

What forms the ossicles of the middle ear?

Cartilage bar derivatives from PA1&2

55

What forms the tympanic cavity and auditory tube?

1st pharyngeal pouch

56

Why usually does only the 1st pharyngeal cleft remain?

PA2 grows down to cover others and hence obliterate them

57

When do brachial cysts or fistulae occur?

If cervical sinus is not obliterated

58

Where in the neck can brachial cysts or fistulae be located?

Anywhere along the anterior border of SCM

59

When does the neural tube form?

Week 3

60

What is the parapharyngeal space?

Potential space parallel to the pharynx that extends down to T2/3 level

61

Where does the carotid sheath extend from and to?

Base of skull to thoracic mediastinum

62

What are the two divisions of the pretracheal layer?

Visceral
Muscular

63

What is enclosed by the two divisions of the pretracheal layer?

Visceral: thyroid, trachea and oesophagus
Muscular: infrahyoid muscles

64

What is the fascial covering of the pharynx called?

Buccopharyngeal fascia

65

Where does the retropharyngeal space extend to?

Diaphragm

66

What are the attachments of the prevertebral fascia?

Superior: base of skull
Anterior: transverse process of vertebral bodies
Posterior: ligamentum nuchae
Inferior: endothermic fascia of the rib cage

67

What does the prevertebral fascia form?

Floor of posterior triangle
Axillary sheath

68

What are the attachments of the deep investing fascia?

Superior: external occipital protuberance and superior nuchal line
Anterior: hyoid bone
Inferior: spine and acromion of scapula, clavicle, manubrium of sternum
Posterior: along ligamentum nuchae

69

At what vertebral level does the common carotid artery branch?

C3/4

70

Where does the first branch of the internal carotid artery go?

To the eye

71

What are the branches of the external carotid artery?

Superior thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal
Lingual
Facial
Occipital
Posterior auricular
Superficial temporal
Maxillary

72

Which major vein is located in the posterior triangle of the neck?

External jugular

73

Which major vein is located in the anterior triangle of the neck?

Internal jugular

74

What gives neural supply to the muscles of facial expression?

CN VII-facial nerve

75

What are the branches of the facial nerve?

Temporal
Zygomatic
Bucal
Mandibular
Cervical

76

What gives neural supply to the muscles of mastication?

CNV-trigeminal

77

What are the branches of the trigeminal nerve?

Ophthalmic (V1)
Maxillary (V2)
Mandibular (V3)

78

Which muscles are supplied by the Trigeminal nerve?

Masseter
Temporalis
Buccinator
Medial and lateral pterygoid

79

What gives innervation to sternocleidomastoid?

Accessory nerve

80

What are the nerves roots of the accessory nerve?

C2&3

81

What gives innervation to trapezius?

Accessory nerve

82

Where does trapezius attach?

Ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T12, clavicle, acromion and scapula spine

83

What gives innervation to platysma?

Facial nerve

84

Where do the two heads of platysma arise from?

Fascia of pec major and deltoid

85

What is the action of platysma at the mandible?

Tenses skin
Releases pressure on superficial veins

86

What is the action of platysma at its inferior attachment?

Depresses mandible
Draws corners of mouth into a grimace to convey stress/tension

87

Which are the suprahyoid muscles?

Stylohyoid
Digastric
Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid

88

What is the action of the suprahyoid muscles?

Elevate hyoid and larynx during swallowing

89

What is the action of the infrahyoid muscles?

Depress hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speech

90

Which are the infrahyoid muscles?

Sternohyoid
Omohyoid
Thyrohyoid
Sternothyroid

91

Which hyoid muscles does the hypoglossal nerve supply?

Geniohyoid and thyrohyoid

92

What gives innervation to stylohyoid and digastric?

Facial nerve

93

What gives innervation to mylohyoid?

Inferior alveolar nerve

94

Which nerve roots supply Omohyoid?

C1-3

95

Which nerve roots supply sternothyroid?

C2-3

96

What sensation do the accessory nerves give?

Pain and proprioception

97

What forms the borders of the posterior triangle of the neck?

Anterior: posterior border of SCM
Posterior: anterior border of trapezius
Inferior: middle 1/3 of clavicle

98

What splits the posterior triangle of the neck into subdivisions?

Omohyoid

99

Describe the occipital triangle of the neck.

Larger, superior subdivision of the posterior triangle which is crossed by the accessory nerve

100

Describe the subclavian triangle of the neck.

Smaller, inferior subdivision of the posterior triangle that contains the distal subclavian artery

101

What are the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?

Superior: inferior border of the mandible
Medial: imaginary sagital line down the midline
Lateral: medial border of SCM

102

What are the 4 subdivisions of the anterior triangle of the neck?

Submandibular triangle
Submental triangle
Muscular triangle
Carotid triangle

103

What are the borders of the submandibular triangle?

Superior: mandible
Anterior: anterior belly of digastric
Posterior: posterior belly of digastric

104

What does the submandibular triangle contain?

Submandibular gland
Facial artery
Facial vein

105

What are the borders of the sub mental triangle?

Inferior: hyoid
Medial: midline
Lateral: anterior belly of digastric

106

What does the sub mental triangle contain?

Lymph

107

What are the borders of the carotid triangle?

Superior: posterior belly of digastric
Lateral: SCM
Inferior: superior omohyoid

108

What does the carotid triangle contain?

Common carotid artery
Internal jugular vein
Hypoglossal nerve
Vagus nerve

109

What are the borders of the muscular triangle of the neck?

Superior: hyoid bone
Medial: midline
Superolateral: superior omohyoid belly
Inferolateral: inferior SCM

110

What are the contents of the muscular triangle of the neck?

Infrahyoids
Pharynx
Thyroid
Parathyroid

111

Which are the superficial suprahyoids?

Digastric and stylohyoid

112

Which is the intermediate suprahyoid?

Mylohyoid

113

Which is the deep suprahyoid?

Geniohyoid

114

Which are the superficial infrahyoids?

Sternohyoid and omohyoid

115

Which are the deep infrahyoids?

Sternothyroid and thyrohyoid