Head And Neck Session 9 Flashcards Preview

Semester 4 > Head And Neck Session 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head And Neck Session 9 Deck (125):
1

What is the oral vestibule?

Slit-like space between the teeth, gingiviae, lips and cheeks

2

What peri-oral muscles control the oral fissure?

Orbicularis oris, buccinator, risoris, depressors and elevators of the lips

3

What is gingiva?

Fibrous tissue covered with mucous membrane that reflects in the alveolar sockets with the periosteum

4

How does gingiva proper appear?

Pink, stippled and keratinized

5

How does the alveolar mucosa appear?

Shiny, red and non-keratinised

6

What do the lips contain?

Orbicularis oris, superior and inferior labial muscles, vessels and nerves

7

What is the labial frenulum?

Free-edged fold of mucous membrane in the midline from the vestibular gingiva to mucosa of upper and lower lips

8

Which labial frenulum is longer?

Superior

9

What provides blood supply to the upper lip?

Facial and infra-orbital arteries

10

What gives arterial supply to the lower lip?

Facial and mental arteries

11

Where are buccal glands found?

Between buccinator and mucous membrane

12

Where are the buccal fat pads?

Superficial to buccinator

13

Why are the buccal fat pads larger in infants?

To prevent cheeks from collapsing during suckling

14

What is the vermillion border?

Change in epithelium from highly to less keratinised to continue with labial mucosa

15

How many generations of dentition do humans have?

2

16

What are the primary/deciduous teeth?

20 small teeth that erupt from 6 months to 3 years

17

At what age do the deciduous teeth exfoliate?

6 y.o.

18

What replaces the deciduous teeth after exfoliation?

Secondary/permanent

19

Describe the secondary/permanent teeth.

32, do not regenerate

20

Where do permanent teeth remain dormant if the overlying primary tooth is not lost?

Alveolar bone

21

What is the term used for the internal surface of maxillary teeth?

Palatal surface

22

What is the term used for the internal surface of mandibular teeth?

Lingual surface

23

What are the teeth anchored in?

Alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible

24

How are the secondary/permanent teeth named?

Central incisor, lateral incisor, canine (cuspid), 1st and 2nd premolars (bicuspid), 1st, 2nd and 3rd molars

25

What is the colloquial name for the 3rd molars?

Wisdom teeth

26

What is the major structural difference between gingiva proper and alveolar mucosa?

Gingiva proper is firmly attached to the underlying structure, alveolar mucosa is free

27

What gives arterial supply to the teeth?

Superior and inferior alveolar arteries from maxillary

28

What gives venous drainage to the teeth?

Alveolar veins that follow arteries

29

Where does lymph from the teeth and gingiviae drain?

Submandibular lymph nodes

30

What is the oral cavity proper?

Space between upper and lower dental arcades, palate and oropharynx

31

What is the oral cavity occupied by when the mouth is closed and at rest?

Tongue

32

What anatomical feature marks the start of the oropharynx?

Junction of hard and soft palate

33

What are the components of the hard palate?

Palatine process of maxilla, lateral and medial pterygoid plates, pterygoid hamulus, vomer and choanae

34

What becomes the maxilla after ossification?

Lateral palatine process

35

What fuses in the foetus to form the palatine raphe?

Median and lateral palatine processes with nasal septum

36

What is found at the anterior end of the palatine raphe?

Incisive fossa

37

What muscles make up the soft palate?

M. levator palatini, m. uvulae, m. tensor veil palatini, m. palato glossus, m. palato pharyngeus

38

Which muscles forms the anterior/palatoglossal arch?

M. palato glossus

39

What muscles forms the posterior/palatopharyngeal arch?

M. palato pharyngeus

40

Where does the soft palate attach to the hard palate?

At the anterior border of the choanae, just posterior to the great and lesser palatine foramina

41

Where does m. tensor veli palatini attach?

Pterygoid hamulus

42

Why does the uvula deviate away from the side of lesion?

All except m. tensor veli palatini are innervated by the vagus nerve so a lesion causes unopposed muscle action away from affected side

43

What gives blood supply to the hard and soft palates?

Greater, lesser and ascending palatine arteries

44

What gives venous drainage to the hard and soft palates?

Pterygoid venous plexus

45

What gives sensory innervation to the gingiviae, mucous membranes and glands of the hard palate?

Greater palatine artery

46

What gives sensory innervation to the mucous membranes of the anterior hard palate?

Nasopalatine nerve

47

What gives sensory innervation to the soft palate?

Lesser palatine nerve

48

Where does the duct of the parotid gland open?

Buccal mucosa opposite 2nd molar

49

Where do the submandibular glands empty?

Papilla each side of the frenulum

50

How are the sublingual glands drained?

Via several ducts through lots of papillae

51

What vein is visible on the sublingual surface of the tongue?

Deep lingual

52

What divides the tongue into its root and body?

Terminal sulcus

53

What are the 4 types of lingual papillae?

Valate, foliate, filiform, fungiform

54

Which lingual papillae are sensitive to touch?

Filiform

55

What is the foramen cecum?

Non-functional embryological remnant of the thyroglossal duct marking the middle of the terminal sulcus

56

Is the pharyngeal part of the tongue visible on inspection?

Not without a mirror or tongue depressor

57

What lymphoid tissue is found in the root of the tongue?

Lymphoid nodules of lingual tonsil

58

What does the midline groove of the tongue overlie?

The lingual septum

59

What forms the anterior wall of the oropharynx?

Pharyngeal part of tongue

60

What gives motor innervation to the tongue?

CNXII

61

What gives general and special sensory innervation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

CNIX

62

What gives general sensory innervation to the anterior 2/3 of tongue?

CNV

63

What gives special sensory innervation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

CNVII

64

What are the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Styloglossus, hyoglossus and genioglossus

65

What are the intrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Superior longitudinal, vertical, transverse, inferior and longitudinal (named according to muscle fibre direction)

66

What action do the superior longitudinal fibres of the tongue have?

Pull the sides of the tongue up

67

What is the action of the longitudinal muscles fibres of the tongue?

Pull the sides of the tongue down

68

Why does the tongue deviate towards the side of lesion?

Unopposed push

69

Where should you look for uvula deviation?

At the base

70

What forms Waldeyer's ring?

Adenoid, tubal, palatine and lingual tonsils

71

Where does exudate accumulate in tonsilitis?

Crypts of palatine tonsils

72

Where are the tubal tonsils found?

End of the Eustachian tube

73

Where are the palatine tonsils located?

Between anterior and posterior arches

74

What can cause uvula deviation other than nerve lesion?

Peritonsillar abscess

75

What type of joint is the TMJ?

Modified hinge-type synovial

76

What forms the TMJ?

Mandibular fossa, articular tubercle and head of mandible all covered in fibro cartilage

77

What splits the TMJ joint into two cavities?

Articular disc

78

What lines the 2 cavities of the TMJ?

Superior and inferior synovial membranes

79

What forms the superior cavity of the TMJ?

Temporal bone and upper part of articular disc

80

What forms the inferior cavity of the TMJ?

Mandibular condyle and inferior aspect of articular disc

81

What shapes does the articular disc have?

Upper surface is concavo-convex and lower surface is concave. Thinner centrally than at edge

82

Why is the capsule surrounding the TMJ relatively thin and loose?

Allow for movement

83

What ligaments are found at the TMJ?

Lateral, 2 medial, sphenomandibular and stylomandibular

84

Which ligament of the TMJ is the strongest?

Lateral

85

Describe the structure of the lateral ligament of the TMJ.

Zygoma --> neck and ramus of mandible with deep fibres blending with the joint capsule

86

Describe the structure of the sphenomandibular ligament.

Spine of sphenoid --> lingula

87

How does the sphenomandibular ligament prevent inferior dislocation of the TMJ?

Keeps a constant length and tension at all mandibular positions

88

Describe the structure of the stylomandibular ligament.

Styloid process --> posterior ramus of mandible as an extension of the deep parotid fascia

89

Which two structures does the stylomandibular ligament separate?

Parotid and submandibular glands

90

Does the stylomandibular ligament contribute significantly to the strength of the TMJ?

No

91

What does movement of the TMJ require?

Displacement of the mandible

92

What movements can the TMJ carry out?

Translation (gliding), rotation (pivoting), elevation, depression, retraction and protrusion

93

Which cavity of the TMJ is responsible for translational movement?

Superior cavity

94

Which cavity of the TMJ facilitates rotation of the joint?

Inferior

95

What stabilises the jaw when closed?

Mandibular condyle into mandibular fossa and action of teeth

96

Where does the majority of force pass through during chewing?

Teeth

97

What prevents posterior dislocation of the jaw?

Posterior glenoid tubercle

98

What prevents anterior dislocation of the jaw?

Articular tubercle

99

What prevents inferior dislocation of the jaw?

Spheno- and stylomandibular ligaments

100

What muscles are involved in closing the mouth?

Temporalis acting at the superior cavity and temporalis, masseter and medial pterygoid acting at the inferior cavity

101

What allows protrusion of the mandible?

Lateral pterygoid acting the superior cavity

102

What allows depression of the mandible?

Digastric acting at the inferior cavity

103

Is digastric a prime mover of the mandible?

No

104

What is the infratemporal fossa?

Irregularly shaped space deep and inferior to the zygomatic arch, below middle cranial fossa, deep to the ramus of the mandible and posterior to the maxilla

105

How does the infratemporal fossa communicate with the temporal fossa?

Through interval between zygomatic arch and cranial bones

106

What forms the roof of the infratemporal fossa?

Greater wing of sphenoid

107

What forms the medial border of the infratemporal fossa?

Lateral pterygoid and plate of sphenoid

108

What forms the posterior border of the infratemporal fossa?

Carotid sheath

109

What forms the lateral border of the infratemporal fossa?

Ramus of mandible

110

What forms the floor of the infratemporal fossa?

Medial pterygoid muscle

111

What forms the anterior border of the infratemporal fossa?

Psterior surface of maxilla

112

What are the muscular contents of the infratemporal fossa?

Inferior temporalis, inferior parts of medial and lateral pterygoid

113

What is the venous contents of the infratemporal fossa?

Pterygoid venous plexus, maxillary vein and MMV

114

What are the arterial contents of the infratemporal fossa?

Maxillary artery becoming MMA

115

How does the MMA exit the infratemporal fossa?

Foramen spinosum

116

Which artery runs next to the infratemporal fossa to supply the scalp?

Superficial temporal

117

What are the nerve contents of the infratemporal fossa?

Mandibular nerve and its branches, chorda tympani and parasympathetic fibres from Otic ganglion

118

How does the mandibular nerve exit the infratemporal fossa?

Through foramen ovale

119

What are the branches of the mandibular nerve found in the infratemporal fossa?

Auriculotemporal, buccal, lingual and inferior alveolar

120

Which two fissures are found in the infratemporal fossa?

Inferior orbital and pterygomaxillary

121

What canal is found in the infratemporal fossa?

Alveolar

122

How does a mandibular nerve block give a wide area of regional anaesthesia in the oral region?

Anaesthetic infiltrates mandibular nerve upon entry to the infratemporal fossa causing anaesthesia of its branches

123

How can either side of the mandibular teeth and lower lip be anaesthetised?

Inferior alveolar nerve block where anaesthetic is injected into the mandibular foramen

124

Which branch of the mandibular nerve does the chorda tympani travel with?

Lingual

125

Which branch of the mandibular nerve do the parasympathetic fibres supplying the parotid gland travel in association with?

Auriculotemporal