Head and Neck - The Bony Skull and Scalp Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head and Neck - The Bony Skull and Scalp Deck (63):
1

What is the most common joint between most bones in the skull?

Fibrous suture joint

2

How is the skull divided?

Into 3 parts

3

What are the 3 parts of the skull?

Neurocranium, viscera- cranium (facial skull) and mandible

4

What are the 3 parts of a skull bone?

Periosteum, compact cortical bone, cancellous dipole (spongy bone)

5

What are the 8 bones of the cranium?

1 frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, occipital
2 parietal, temporal

6

Name the 4 sutures of the skull.

Sagittal, coronal, lambdoid, squamous

7

Where is the sagittal suture between?

2 parietal bones

8

Where is the coronal suture between?

Parietal bones and frontal bone

9

Where is the lambdoid suture between?

Parietal bones and occipital bone

10

Where is the squamous suture between?

Parietal bone and temporal bone

11

What do the bones of the facial skeleton give attachment to?

Muscles of tongue, mastication and pharynx

12

What are the 14 facial bones?

2 nasal, lacrimal, inferior nasal concha, maxilla, palatine, zygomatic
1 vomer, mandible

13

What are the bony prominences of the skull?

Occipital protuberance, mastoid process, zygomatic arch, styloid process, occipital condyles

14

What is the occipital protuberance?

Bump at the back of the head and is part of the occipital bone

15

What bone is the mastoid process part of?

Temporal bone

16

What is the zygomatic arch?

Cheek bone and is part of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone

17

What bone is the styloid process part of?

Temporal bone

18

What is the occipital condyles?

Where head sits on atlas and is part of the occipital bone

19

What are the 3 fosse of the cranial cavity?

anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae

20

What are the parts of the sphenoid bone?

The body, lesser/greater wings, lateral and medial pterygoid plates

21

On the floor of the skull looking from the inferior aspect, what can be seen?

Occipital condyles, mastoid and styloid processes, pterygoid plates of sphenoid bone, palatine bone

22

What is the foramen magnum?

Largest foramen in the posterior cranial fossa

23

What 2 structures pass through the foramen magnum?

Spina cord and R&L vertebral arteries

24

What is the role of air spaces?

Decrease the weight of the skull

25

What are the 3 bones that play a role in hearing?

Hammer/malleus
Anvil/incus
Stirrup/stapes

26

Where can the external auditory canal be seen?

On the outside without having to look inside the ear

27

Where does the petrous part of the temporal bone lie?

Immediately inside the canal on the floor of the skull

28

What is found within the petrous part of the temporal bone?

Ear ossicles

29

Where does the scalp extend from and to?

Anteriorly: superciliary arches/supraorbital arches
Posteriorly: superior nuchal lines
Laterally: superior temporal bone

30

What are the superior nuchal lines?

(Slightly) part of the occipital bone

31

What 2 bones form the zygomatic arch?

Anteriorly: temporal process of zygomatic bone
Posteriorly: zygomatic process of temporal bone

32

What type of joint is present between these 2 bones at the zygomatic arch?

Oblique suture/fibrous joint

33

What are the 5 layers of the scalp?

S: skin
C: connective tissue
A: aponeurosis of the occipitofrontal muscle (epicranial aponeurosis)
L: loose connective tissue
P: periosteum

34

What makes up the pericranium?

Periosteum, compact cortical bone, cancellous diploe

35

What is the epicranial aponeurosis? (2 points to be made)

3rd layer of the scalp
Connects frontal and occipital bellies of occipitofrontalis muscle

36

What is the action of the occipitofrontalis muscle?

It is a muscle of facial expression
On contraction of the anterior belly it raises the eyebrows

37

What cranial nerve supplies the anterior part of the scalp (anterior to the auricle of the external ear)?

Trigeminal Nerve (Cr N V)

38

What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve?

Ophthalamic (V1), Maxillary (V2) and Mandibular (V3)

39

What do the fibres of the ophthalmic nerve carry?

Purely sensory

40

What do the fibres of the maxillary nerve carry?

Purely sensory

41

What do the fibres in the mandibular nerve carry?

Sensory and motor

42

What cranial spinal nerves supply the posterior half of the scalp (posterior to the auricle of the ear)?

Cutaneous branches of the anterior and posterior rami of the cervical spinal nerves C2 and C3

43

What structure forms from the ventral rami of C5 to T1?

Brachial plexus

44

What do the ventral roots of the spinal nerve carry?

Motor fibres

45

What do the dorsal roots of the spinal nerve carry?

Sensory fibres

46

What do the ventral and dorsal rami of the spinal nerves carry?

Both sensory and motor fibres

47

Do they spinal nerves carry any parasympathetic fibres?

No

48

What fibres could a cranial nerve carry?

Sensory, motor or parasympathetic fibres
Cranial nerves can carry a combination of these

49

How do sympathetic fibres reach these regions supplied by cranial nerves?

Post-ganglionic fibres form the sympathetic chain from a plexus and hitch a ride with blood vessels

50

What is general sensory?

Ordinary sensations: touch, temperature, pain etc

51

What is special sensory?

Vision, hearing, taste

52

In which layer of the scalp are blood vessels present?

2nd layer: connective tissue layer

53

What are the branches of the external carotid artery that supply the scalp?

Superficial temporal artery, posterior auricular artery, occipital artery

54

What are the branches of the internal carotid artery that supply the scalp?

Supratrochlear artery, supra-orbital artery (both branches from ophthalmic artery which is the first branch of ICA)

55

Where can the pulse of the superficial temporal artery be felt?

In front of the tragus of the ear

56

What veins drain the scalp?

Supraorbital, supratrochelar, facial, submental, anterior jugular, internal jugular, subclavian, external jugular, posterior auricular, superficial temporal

57

Do the veins that drain the scalp anastomose with each other?

Yes

58

What veins, apart from the veins that anastomose with each other, do the veins that drain the scalp anastomose with?

Diploic veins in the skull bones

59

Through what veins is the blood drained to the venous sinuses of the brain?

Diploic veins and emissary veins

60

What can emissary veins do?

Emissary veins can spread infection intracranially

61

What is dipole?

Spongy cancellous bone separating the inner and outer layers of the cortical bone of the skull

62

What potential grave complication could arise from scalp infections due to the presence of emissary veins?

Meningitis

63

What is the lymphatic drainage of the scalp?

There is no lymph nodes in the scalp. Lymph drains away from scalp into lymph nodes of the head and neck