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Flashcards in Head exam Deck (41):
1

Diseases causing macroencephaly or enlarged brain

Alexander
Canavan
Tay-Sachs

2

Most common causes of congenital hydrocepalus

aqueductal stenosis

blockage of fluid from lateral ventricles

3

Asymmetrical distortion of skull

craniosynostosis

4

Premature closure of metopic/frontal suture resulting to a triangular shaped skull

synostotic trigonocephaly

5

premature closing of bilateral coronal

brachycephaly

6

premature closing of saggital

scaphocephaly

7

hernia of part of the brain and meninges through a cranial defect

encephalocele

8

skin + brain + meninges + CSF

encephalocele

9

meninges + CSF

meningocele

10

pigmented macules of a distinct light brown

cafe au lait

11

congenital disorder characterized by pale, round, well-defined macules with irregular borders (whitening discoloration)

nevus amenicus

12

malformation of angioblastic tissue

hemangioma

13

congenital syndrome of unknown etiology consisting of a port-wine stain distributed over the trigeminal nerve

Sturge-Weber syndrome

14

Walking on tiptoe tests what root

S1

15

Walking on heel tests what root

L5

16

twisted neck

torticollis

17

acute angulation of the spine

gibbus

18

abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic vertebral

kyphosis

19

abnormally increased concavity in the curvature of the lumbar vertebral column

lordosis

20

right/left deviation of the spine

scoliosis

21

abnormal tufts of hair at spinal area signifies

midline fusion defect like spina bifida

22

split in spinal cord

dysraphism

23

midline fusion defect, spinal cord and meninges are exposed

myelomeningocoele

24

only meninges are exposed, spinal cord is tethered

meningocoele

25

Compression test (+)

narrowing of neural foramen
pressure on facet joints
muscle spasm

26

distraction test (+)

relief of pain = nerve root compression

27

valsalva test (+)

pain = herniated disc

28

swallowing/cough test (+)

pain =
bony protuberance
bony osteophytes
soft tissue swelling due to hematomas, infection, or tumor in anterior cervical spine

29

adson test (+)

disappearance of radial pulse - compression of subclavian artery by the medial scalene muscle

30

Lasegue's test (+)

pain over back and radiating to lower limb = nerve root

31

sciatic stretch test (+)

after Lasegue, drop limb 10 degrees
then dorsiflex

tension relief upon dropping AND sciatica pain upon dorsiflexion

32

femoral stretch test

to rule out higher disc prolapse

33

nerve root of elbow flexion

C5

34

nerve root of wrist extension

C6

35

nerve root of wrist flexion

C7

36

nerve root of finger flexion

C8

37

nerve root of finger extension

T1

38

Reflex at C5-6

biceps

39

Reflex at C7-8

triceps

40

Reflex at L3-4

knee jerk

41

Reflex at S1-2

ankle jerk