Head & Finger Nail Abnormalities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head & Finger Nail Abnormalities Deck (21)
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What are some examples of face abnormalities?

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
Cushing’s Syndrome
Parkinson’s Disease


Describe acromegaly

-Results from excessive growth hormone
-Due to benign tumor or pituitary gland (pituitary adenoma)
-Results in excessive growth
-Generalized expansion of the skull
-Pronounced brow protrusion, often with ocular distension
-Pronounced lower jaw protrusion
-Macroglossia & teeth gapping


Describe Cushing’s Syndrome

-“Moon face”
-Facial swelling (rounding)
-Red cheeks
-“The patient appears cushingoid.”


Describe Myxedema

-Severe hypothyroidism
-Dry, coarse & sparse hair
-Thin lateral eyebrows
-Puffy face
-Puffy eyes


Describe Parkinson’s Disease

-Decreased facial mobility
-Blunted expression
-Masklike face


Describe Parotid gland enlargement

-One of the salivary glands
-Parotitis (infectious, blockage)
-Chronic bilateral enlargement can be seen with obesity, diabetes, cirrhosis
-Gradual unilateral enlargement suggests neoplasm


Describe Bell’s Palsy

-Idiopathic paralysis of the facial nerve (CN VII)
-Unable to perform functions involving facial nerve
-Wrinkle forehead & Squeeze eyes shut
-Smile & Puff out cheeks
-In general, Stroke spares forehead wrinkles (allows for some wrinkling of the forehead) – Bell’s Palsy does NOT


Describe Androgenic alopecia

-Male pattern baldness
-Begins above both temples
-Hair also thins at the crown of the head
-Often a rim of hair around the sides and rear of the head is left

-Female pattern baldness (variant of androgenic alopecia)
-Hair thinner over the entire scalp but doesn’t recede


Describe Alopecia areata

-Clearly demarcated round or oval patches of hair loss
-Usually affects young adults & children


Describe Seborrheic dermatitis

-Results from overproduction of sebum (seborrhea)
-Flaky, white to yellowish scales on oily skin


Describe Hirsutism

-Male pattern hair growth on a woman
-Due to excess androgens or increased androgen sensitivity
-Can be a symptom of disease, commonly Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)


Describe Paronychia

-Acute or chronic inflammation of the proximal & lateral nail folds
-Nail folds swollen, red, tender

-Cause: Local trauma (e.g. nail biting, manicures) or frequent hand immersion in water


Describe Leukonychia

-Nonuniform white spots that grow slowly out with the nail
-Cause is trauma


Describe Koilonychia

-Spoon Nails
-Abnormally thin nails that have lost convexity, may become concave
-Associated with iron-deficiency anemia & Plummer-
Vinson syndrome


Describe Onycholysis

-Painless separation of the whitened opaque nail plate from the pinker translucent nail bed; starts distally & progresses proximally

-Cause: Trauma (e.g. psoriasis, manicures) Some systemic diseases e.g. diabetes, anemia, hyperthyroidism, syphilis


Describe Onychocryptosis

-Ingrown toenail, nail grows into dermis

-Cause: Improperly cutting toenails, Tight shoes


Describe Onychomycosis

-Fungal infection of the nail bed, plate, or matrix

-Cause: Occlusive footwear, locker room exposure, susceptibility (e.g. diabetes)


Describe Terry’s Nails

-Nail plate turns white with distal band of reddish brown

-Cause: Aging, Some chronic disease (e.g. liver disease – usu. cirrhosis, diabetes, heart failure)


Describe Beau’s Lines

-Transverse depressions of the nail plates, usually bilateral

-Cause: Temporary disruption of proximal nail growth from systemic illness


Describe Pitting

-Punctate depressions of the nail plate

-Cause: Defecting layering of the superficial nail plate
Usually assoc. with psoriasis


Describe Clubbing

-Bullous swelling of the soft tissue at the nail base with loss of normal angle
-Nail bed feels spongy or floating

-Cause: Conditions associated with hypoxia (e.g. congenital heart disease, lung diseases incl. lung cancer)

-Mechanism unknown but involves vasodilation & increased blood flow to distal portion of digits & changes in the connective tissue