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Yr 8 Science end of year exam > Health and lifestyle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Health and lifestyle Deck (34):

What are nutrients?

Nutrients are chemicals found in food.


What does a carbohydrate do?

Carbohydrates give us energy
eg sugar, starch, fibre


What does protein do?

Protein allows growth and repair body tissue


Examples of vitamins

Vitamin C is for healthy skin and gums
Vitamin D is for strong bones and teeth


Examples of minerals

Iron helps to make red blood cells
Calcium needed for healthy bones and teeth.


What does a lipids (fats) do?

They provide energy and insulation


There are 6 main food nutrients. What are they?

Protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, lipids and water.


Information on balanced diets

A balanced diet is when you eat the foods that have the right percentage of nutrients for you. This can be due to your age, gender and activity.


How does an unhealthy diet cause health issues?

In the short term, poor nutrition can contribute to stress, tiredness and our capacity to work, and over time, it can contribute to the risk of developing some illnesses and other health problems such as: being overweight or obese. tooth decay. high blood pressure.


The meaning of positive and negative results in food tests

If the food changes colour that means the test is positive (the substance is found in the food). If the food stays the same colour the test is negative (the substance isn't found in the food.


Why do different people need different amounts of energy?

The amount of energy an individual needs is based in their gender, how much exercise they do and the amount of time they sleep.


Why does food need to be digested?

Food needs to be digested as your body needs to get all the nutrients out of the food and into your body.


What are the different parts of the digestive system.

Mouth, oesophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, anus


What does the mouth do?

Breaks down food physically with teeth. Enzymes in saliva break it down.


What does the oesophagus do?

This is where the food goes from the mouth to stomach by muscular contractions called 'peristalsis'


What does the stomach do?

The stomach churns the food with stomach acid (hydraulic acid) and digestive enzymes.


What does the liver do?

The liver produces a green liquid called bile. It reduces the stomach acid and helps break down fats.


What does the gall bladder do?

The gall bladder stores bile and releases it into the small intestines.


What does the pancreas do ?

A gland that produces digestive enzymes that help break down food.


What do the small intestines do?

The small intestines break down the food further with enzymes and where digested food is absorbed into the bloodstream.


What do the large intestines do?

The large intestines is where water is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. It also passes the undigested food to the rectum.


What does the rectum do?

The rectum is where the faeces (poo) is stored.


What does the anus do?

The anus is a muscular passage that passes out the faeces (poo).


how the small intestine is adapted to provide a large surface area for maximum nutrient absorption.

The small intestines have villi in the inside that maximises the surface area to maximise nutrient absorption.


How do enzymes affect the rate of digestion.

Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of digestion (and other reactions).
Digestive enzymes speed up the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids (fats)


What are carbohydrase?

Enzymes that break down carbohydrates into simple sugars


What are protease?

Enzymes that break protein into amino acids


What do lipase do?

Enzymes the break fat into 3 fatty acids and glycerol.


How can drugs and alcohol affect people's health?

Drugs are something that when consumed alter the usual function of your body.
Some examples are depressants, stimulants, painkillers, hallucinogens and performance enhancers.
Alcohol contains a depressant drug called ethanol. Alcohol slows down/decreases your brain activity and nervous system. This can lead to lack of self control.


Whats are the affects of nicotine?

Nicotine is an addictive stimulant drug that speeds up the heart rate.


What are the affects of carbon monoxide?

This binds to red blood cells. It reduces the amount of oxygen the red blood cell can carry.


What are the affects of tar?

A sticky brown substance that is deposited in the lungs. It is a carcinogen (causes cancer).


What are the three types of carbohydrates?

Starch, sugar and fibre.


How can smoking cause disease?

Cancer- cancer is when cells in specific part of the body start to reproduce uncontrollably
Bronchitis- is an infection of the main airways of the lungs
Smoking cough- is a persistent cough that develops in long-term smokers.
emphysema- is a long - term, progressive disease of the lungs that primarily causes shortness of breath due to over inflation of the alveoli (air sacs).