Ecology Flashcards Preview

Yr 8 Science end of year exam > Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecology Deck (44):
1

What is the Biosphere?

The biosphere is the whole world from the lowest to the highest.

2

What is a biome?

A Biome is the different environments around the world

3

What is an ecosystem?

An ecosystem includes all of the living things(plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere).

4

What is a community?

This is all the different species that live in the same habitat at the same time.

5

What is the population?

A population is made up off all the organisms of one species living together in the same place (habitat) at the same time.

6

Individual

Each population is made up of many individuals. The genetic and physiological adaptions of an individual organism to its environment is an important aspect of ecology.

7

Interdependence

Within a community each species depends on other species. They depend on each other for: food, shelter, pollination, mates and seed dispersal etc.

8

Habitat

A habitat is the place where an organism lives.

9

What are the word and chemical equations for photosynthesis?

Word equation: carbon dioxide + water light energy
----------->glucose + oxygen
Chlorophyll
Chemical equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O —> C6H12O6 + 6O2.

10

Where does photosynthesis happen?

In the leaf.

11

In the leaf what transports water?

Xylem

12

In the leaf what transports food?

Phloem

13

In the leaf what is the waterproof upper layer that prevents water loss called?

Waxy cuticle

14

In the leaf what is the transport layer - allows lots of light through called?

Upper epidemis

15

In the leaf what contains chlorophyll - traps sunlight energy?

Chloroplasts

16

In the leaf what is a pore that allows gases into and out of the leaf called?

Stoma

17

In the leaf what are the two cells that can change shape to open or close the stoma called?

Guard cell

18

In the leaf what is the layer that is tightly packed with cells with lots of chloroplasts and where photosynthesis occurs called?

Palisade cell layer

19

In the leaf what is the layer with lots of air spaces to allow gases to diffuse called?

The spongy cells layer

20

How is a leaf well adapted for photosynthesis?

The leaf has a large surface facing the sun which absorbs as much light as possible?

21

What is the role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis?

Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which transfers sunlight into food.

22

What are the symptoms in plants when they lack magnesium?

Yellow lower parts of the leaves and poor plant growth.

23

What are the symptoms in plants when they lack nitrates?

Yellow leaves and poor plant growth.

24

Why do farmers use fertilisers on soil?

They use fertilisers to increase nitrate levels to make the plants grow quicker.

25

What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?

Glucose + oxygen ----> energy + carbon dioxide + water

26

What is the chemical equation for aerobic respiration?

C6 H12 O6 + 6O2----> 6CO2 + 6H20 + 38 ATP molecules

27

What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?

Glucose ----> lactic acid + energy (2ATP)

28

Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Aerobic respiration - occurs during normal activities when enough oxygen is available
Anaerobic respiration - occurs during vigorous exercise when there is a lack of oxygen.

29

What do food chains and food webs show?

Food chain show the feeding relationship within a community.

30

What is meant by predator and prey.

Consumers that kill and eat other animals are predators, and
those eaten are prey.
In a stable community the numbers of predators and
prey rise and fall in cycles.
This is called a cyclical pattern

31

What is a producer?

A producer is either a plant or cyanobacteria. Producers make their own food by photosynthesis and are always the start of the food chain.
Level 1

32

What is a primary consumer?

(Usually) herbivores that eat plants/algae are called primary consumers.
Level 2

33

What is a secondary consumer?

Omnivore/carnivores that eat herbivores are called secondary consumers.
Level 3

34

What is a tertiary consumer?

Carnivores that eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers.
Level 4

35

What is an apex predator?

Apex predators are carnivores with no predators.
e.g Killer Whale, Tiger, Great White Shark, Lion

36

What happens to energy in a food chain?

As energy flows through a food chain (from one orgasm to another) some energy is used for growth.
However at each trophic level approx 90% of the energy is transferred into less useful forms such as heat from respiration and excretion.

37

How toxic materials can accumulate in a food web (bioaccumulation)?

Bioaccumulation is the gradual accumulation of substances, such as
pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. The chemicals accumulate in
the organism because they are not broken down easily. The chemicals get
stored in the organism and can cause serious problems.

Increase in concentration of a pollutant in an oragnism.

38

Explain why bioaccumulation has a greater affect on top predators in a food chain.

Bioaccumulation has a greater affect on top predators in a food chain as the amount of pollutant increases with time (biomagnification)

39

Consequence of phosphates deficiency?

Purple leaves and poor plant growth

40

Consequence of potassium deficiency?

Yellow leaves with brown spots and poor plant growth

41

Why are nitrates needed in plants?

Needed to make amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins.

42

Why are phosphates needed in plants?

Needed to make ATP in respiration.
Needed to make DNA

43

Why is potassium needed in plants?

Required to make enzymes essential for photosynthesis and respiration?

44

Why is magnesium needed in plants?

To make chlorophyll which is required for photosynthesis?