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Flashcards in health and wellness Deck (83):
1

sedentary death syndrome

cause of deaths attributed to a lack of regular physical activity

2

Health

a state if complete well being- not just the absence of disease or infirmity

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life expectancy

number of years a person is expected to live based on the person's birth year

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chronic diease

illness that develop as a result of an unhealthy lifestyle and last a long time

5

health life expectancy vs life expectancy calculations

subtract the years of ill health from total life expectancy

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cardiovascular disease

leading cause of death in the US

7

tobacco

leading cause of preventable death in the US

8

physical activity

bodily movement produce by skeletal muscles and requires low to moderate intensity of effort

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examples of physical activity

walking to and from work, gardening, washing the car by hand, doing household chores, and using the stairs instead of the elevator or escalator

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seven dimensions of wellness

physical occupational emotional spiritual social mental environmental

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physical

is the dimension most commonly associated with being healthy

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emotioal

involves the ability to understand your own feelings. accept your limitations and achieve emotional stability

13

mental

implies that you can apply the things you have learned, create opportunities to learn more and engage your mind in lively interaction with the world around you

14

social

positive self image, endows you with the ease and confidence to be outgoing, friendly and affectionate, toward others

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environmental

refers to the effect that our surroundings have on our well being

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occupational

a job that provides rewards that are important to the individual

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spiritual

people who has a sense of meaning and direction in life and a relationship with a higher being

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types of physical fitness

health and skill related

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health- related

ability to perform activities of daily living without undue fatigue

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skill-related

components consists of agility, balance, coordination, reaction time, speed, and power

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fitness

the ability to meet the ordinary as well as the unusual demands of daily life safely and effectively without being overly fatigued and still have energy left for leisure and recreational activities

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environmental influences on physical activity

modern day automation and mechanics, excessive viewing of the tv, modern day architecture, weather and perceived crime

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environmental influences on nutrition

over eating, aggresive advertising, eating out is the norm instead of cooking, increase portions of food, snacking without being active

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barriers that we need to change when it comes to environmental influences

lack of core values
procrastination
preconditioned cultural beliefs
gratification
risk complacency
complexity
indifference and helplessness
rationalization
illusions of invincibility

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lack of core values

recognizing the benefits of something but refusing to change.. : educating yourself and building relationships with the same lifestyle to encourage you

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procrastination

giving excuses and pushing the date back till next week or next month: lack of motivation is the key to procrastination

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preconditioned cultural beliefs

accept the idea that we are products of our surroundings. : our main transportation is car, so instead of walking to class, we drive our cars because its what we know: finding people who are willing to walk to class will break the barrier

28

gratification

instant gratification to long benefits: overeating instead of using self-restraint to eat moderately to prevent weight gain: ways to break barriers: ask your self question : how did i feel after? did it affect me?

29

risk complacency

consequences of unhealthy behaviors often don't manifest themselves until years later.. : ways to break barriers: ask yourself how do i want to life the rest of my life and what type of health do i want to have?

30

complexity

people think the world is to complicated, with to much to think about. If we just breathe and take one step at a time, life would not seem so overwhelming

31

indifference and helplessness

believing that our unhealthy style doesn't affect the quality of your life and we have no control over our life and blame it all on our genes: ways to change it: taking control of your life

32

rationalization

when people aren't practicing healthy behaviors but they often tell themselves that they do live a healthy life: ways to break barrier: recognize the actuality of the problem

33

illusions of invincibility

thinking unhealthy behaviors will not harm them: ways to change barrier: the younger you are the better the odds to attain a longer lifestyle, so iniate the change now before its gets to late

34

self efficacy

the belief in one's own ability to perform a given task

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motivation

the desire and will to do something

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locus of control

a concept examining the extent to which a person believes he or she can influence the external environment

37

internal locus control

people who have control over their lives

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external locus control

people believe that what happens to them is a result of chance or the environment and is unrelated to their behavior

39

problems with competence

- identify skills needed to perform an activity and practice those skills

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problems with confidence

visualize success, positive self talk, divide large tasks into smaller more easily managed tasks- put yourself in a position to succeed

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problems with motivation

gain knowledge as to why activity is important- SET SMART GOALS

42

five categories of willful change

stopping a negative behavior
preventing a relapse from the negative behavior
developing a positive behavior
strengthening the positive behavior
maintaining positive behavior

43

six behavior change theories

learning theory
problem solving theory
social cognitive theory
relapse prevention theory
humanistic theory of change
transtheoretical model

44

learning theory

positive reinforcement and shaping ( taking baby steps) ex: going from inactive to 10,000 steps a day by starting small and working their way up

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problem solving model

conscious attention, setting goals, and preparing a specific plan ex; for a person to actually try and quit smoking, they need understand why they need to, build a plan, date and decide to quit

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social cognitive theory

environmental influences, self efficacy, and characteristics of the behavior to be addressed

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relapse prevention model

anticipating high risk situations and develop action plans to prevent lapses and relapses Ex when plan to run outside but its raining, plan to run in a indoor track

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humanistic theory of change

We are all unique on how we obtain our goals, we are independent, and people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs , each steps needs something to build on

49

transtheorectical model

change is a gradual process that involves several predictable stages

50

six stages of transtheorectial model

precontemplation
contemplation
preparation
action
maintence
termination/action
and relpase and lapse can happen anytime

51

lapse

falling back into unhealthy behaviors for a short term

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relapse

falling back into unhealthy behaviors for a long term

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six nutrients

carbohydrates
protein
fat
vitamin
lipids
water

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fuel nutrients

carbohydrates
protein
fat
which supplies the body with energy

55

regulatory nutrients

vitamin
lipids
water
have no caloric value but are needed to maintain good health function normally

56

six food groups

oils
grains
fruit
vegetables
milk
meat and beans

57

carbs breakdown units

simple :monosaccharides and disaccharides
complex: polysaccharides and fiber
helps regulate fat and metabolize protein

58

fats breakdown units

simple, compound and derived fats

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protein breakdown units

used to build and repair tissues and other body parts
essential amino acid we can not produce
nonessential amino acids can be produce if the presence of nitrogen is there

60

vitamin classification

water soluble(b complex and c)
fat soluble( a, d, e, and k)

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vitamin a

is produce from betacarotene and found in carrots, pumpkin and sweet potatoes

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vitman d

is found in certain foods and created when UV light from the sun transform 7 dehydrocholesterol, a compound in human skin

63

vitamin K

created in the body by intestinal bacteria

64

minerals

Minerals are crucial components of respiratory pigments, enzymes and enzyme systems.
ex. calcium, sodium, selenium, and iron
Minerals regulate muscular and nervous system impulses, blood clotting, and normal heart rhythm.

65

recommended fuel intake

carbohydrates - 45-65%
fat 20-35%
protein 10 - 35%

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DRI

dietary reference intakes

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RDA

Recommended dietary allowences

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EAR

Estimated average requirement

69

AI

adequate intakes

70

Ul

tolerable upper intake levels

71

DV

daily values

72

three engergy subtrates for physical activities

ATP,anaerobic or lactic system,aerobic system

73

techniques to asses body compositions

the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (dexa)
Pros: accurate Con: not readily available
The hydroastic weighing technique :pool
pro: accurate con not readily available, time consuming, difficult
Bod pod
pro: five minutes, accurate con; not available, not heavily researched
skinfold measurements
pro: easy, readily avilabile,simple and not expensive
con not accurate

74

obese

an excessive accumulation of body fat

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overweight

an excess amount of weight against a given standard

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android obesity

fat stored in the abdominal area ( apple shape)

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gyrnoid obesity

fat stored in the hips or thighs (pear shape)

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consequences for excessive weight

 Blood Pressure
 Blood Lipids
Type II Diabetes
Insulin Resistance, Glucose Intolerance
Coronary Heart Disease
Angina Pectoris
Congestive Heart Failure
Stroke
Gallbladder Disease
Gout
Osteoarthritis

79

Fad diets

Use liquid formulas instead of foods.
Misrepresent salespeople as individuals qualified to provide nutrition counseling.
Fail to provide information on risks associated with weight loss and use of the diet.
Do not involve physical activity.
Do not encourage healthy behavioral changes.
Are not supported by the scientific community or national health organizations.
Fail to provide information for weight maintenance upon completion of diet phase.
A SUCCESSFUL DIET IS A LONG BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

80

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by self-imposed starvation to lose and maintain very low body weight

81

Bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by a pattern of binge eating and purging in an attempt to lose weight and maintain low body weight

82

setpoint theory is what?

weight regulating mechanism
is a feature of the hypothalamus of the brain that controls how much the body should weigh.
The WRM has a setpoint for controlling both appetite and the amount of fat stored.
A very low-calorie diet will trigger the body to adjust its setpoint to a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR – lowest level of caloric intake to sustain life) .

83

energy balancing equation

caloric input equals the caloric output the person will not gain or loose weight