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Flashcards in Health Data Deck (20)
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1

Name the types of health data?

Patient data
- appointment dates, test results, treatment details

Specific Instruments
- questionnaires, rating scales

Data from blood/tissue samples e.g. DNA, Histology

Data from images e.g. X-Rays, CT, MRI

Health and Fitness Data e.g. heart rate, activity monitoring

2

Name two methods of data collection?

Conventional study designs
- Observational Studies
- cross-sectional study
- case-controls study
- cohort study

- Intervention Study

Big Data

3

What is a cross sectional study?

Measures variables of interest - risk factors and disease at the same time

4

What are the strengths and weaknesses of a cross sectional study?

Strengths
- Relatively easy and cheap to conduct
- Provide important information on the distribution and burden of exposures and outcomes

Weaknesses
- only measure prevalent, not incident cases. Therefore, only limited value for identifying risk factors
- It can be difficult to establish the time sequence of events

5

What is a case control study?

Starts with groups with and without a disease and looks back to see who had the exposure in the past. Used to identify risk factors for diseases with long latent periods

6

What are the strengths and weaknesses of a case-control study?

Strengths
- Quick and relatively cheap
- Good for studying rare diseases
- Good for diseases with ling latent periods of time between exposure and outcome

Weaknesses
- Prone to selection bias
- Prone to information bias
- Cannot establish the sequence of events - was risk factor present before disease?

7

What are cohort studies?

Studies begin with a group of people
- without the disease, measure exposures and then follow up over time to see who gets disease

- with a particular disease, measure characteristics and then see who gets particular outcomes

8

What are the strengths and weaknesses of a cohort studies?

Strengths
- exposure/prognostic factors are measured at the start of study before outcome occurs, so measurement is not biased by the presence or absence of outcome
- can provide data on time course of the development of the outcomes
- multiple outcomes can be explained

Weaknesses
- slow and potentially expensive
- inefficient for rare diseases
- exposure status may change during study
- differential loss to follow-up may introduce bias

9

What is Randomised Controlled Trial?

Gold standard interventional study

Comparison gorups should be similar with respect to cofounders

Prevents bias in allocation of participants to treatment/control

Difference between the intervention and control groups will be whether or not they received the intervention therefore any difference in outcome should be attributable to the intervention

10

What opportunities does Big Data present?

Wide application
More comprehensive data
More detailed data
Costs/efficiency

11

What challenges does Big Data present?

Privacy and security
- it is vital that identifiable personal data is held securely to protect

Quality of Data
- Researchers generally have less control of data
- Missing Data
- Bias
- Risk of change findings due to multiple comparisons

12

What is data linkage?

Linking datasets that harness the breadth of data are available

13

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Science of mimicking human intelligence

14

What is machine learning?

An automated way to find patterns in data without being explicitly programmed where to look or what to conclude

15

What is deep learning?

A subset of machine learning using more computational techniques to learn computational techniques to learn complex patterns in large amounts of data

16

What is supervised machine learning ?

Train a machine by showing it examples instead of programming it

17

Name some applications of deep learning

Self-driving cars
Facial recognition
Translation
Personal assistants
Content understanding for filtering e.g. hate speech
Anomaly detection in financial security

18

Applications of deep learning in healthcare?

Automated fracture detection on wrist x-rays
Categorisation of lung nodules as benign
Classification of histology samples
Determination of nature of skin lesions

Data monitoring in ICU

Prediction of bowel cancer survival

19

Name the ethical principles relating to health data?

Privacy
Public Interest
Consent
Transparency
Security
Proportionality

20

What are the ethical issues relating to big data?

Identifiability