# Health Physics I: Unit 2 Review Flashcards Preview

## RWMC School Of Radiology > Health Physics I: Unit 2 Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Health Physics I: Unit 2 Review Deck (46)
1
Q

As the intensity of x-ray exposure of the air volume increases, the number of electron–ion pairs produced:

A

increases

2
Q

Units that specify dose area product (DAP)

A

mGy-cm2

3
Q

Types of ionizing radiation that produce virtually the same biologic effect in body tissue for equal absorbed doses

A

X-rays; beta particles; gamma rays

4
Q

Theory that relates to the ionization produced in a small cavity within an irradiated medium or object to the energy absorbed in that medium as a result of its radiation exposure

A

Bragg-Gray

5
Q

Alpha particles have a radiation weighting factor (WR) that is numerically equal to

A

20

6
Q

First American radiation worker to die from radiation-induced cancer in October of 1904

A

7
Q

An energy absorption of 1 J/kg of matter in the irradiated object equals which of the following

A

1 Gy

8
Q

Formula used to calculate effective dose

A

EfD = D × WR × WT

9
Q

1 gray equals

A

100 cGy (centigray)

10
Q

Beta particles are:

A

Protons

11
Q

The sum total of air kerma over the exposed area of the patient’s body surface:

A

Dose area product

12
Q

Radiation quantities that may be defined as the measure of the total electric charge of one sign, either all pluses or all minuses, per unit mass that these two types of radiation generate in dry air at standard temperature and pressure (760 mm Hg or 1 atmosphere at sea level and 22° C)

A

Exposure

13
Q

Physicians cancer deaths attributed to x-ray exposure were reported as early as what year?

A

1910

14
Q

The total kinetic energy released in a unit mass (kilogram) of air and expressed in metric units of joules per kilogram is

A

Air kerma

15
Q

Early tissue reactions of ionizing radiation that were experienced by early radiation workers

A

Diffuse redness of skin
Blood disorders
Intestinal disorders

16
Q

SI unit of electric current

A

Ampere

17
Q

What do radiation weighting factors primarily take into consideration?

A

Some types of radiation are more efficient at causing biologic damage than other types of radiation for a given dose

18
Q

Cataract formation, fibrosis, reduced fertility and sterility are classified as

A

Late tissue reactions of ionizing radiation

19
Q

Discovered x-rays on November 8, 1895

A

20
Q

Whole-body TEDE regulatory limit for exposed personnel is __ and __ for the general public

A
1. 05 Sv

0. 001 Sv

21
Q

If 200 people receive an average effective dose of 0.25 Sv, what is the collective effective dose

A

50 person-Sv

22
Q

0.1 Gy equals

A

100 mGy

23
Q

Instrument that can be calibrated to read air kerma

A

Ionization chamber

24
Q

SI units used to specify absorbed dose

A

Gray or centigray

25
Q

The front of the white paper packet may be color coded to facilitate correct usage and placement of the dosimeter on the body of occupationally exposed personnel in what type of dosimeter?

A

Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter

26
Q

physicists use ionization chambers connected to electrometers to perform the annual standard measurements required by state, federal, and health care accreditation organizations for radiographic and fluoroscopic devices. These annual measurements could include:

A
```X-ray output in Gy or mGy
Fluoroscopic radiation entrance rates in mSv/min
kVp setting accuracy
Exposure time exactness
Half-value layers, or beam quality```
27
Q

Maximum period of time that a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) may be worn as a personnel device

A

3 months

28
Q

Whenever the letter “M” appears under the current monitoring period or in the cumulative columns of a personnel monitoring report, it signifies:

A

Equivalent dose below the minimum measurable radiation quantity was recorded

29
Q

The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter is “read out” by:

A

A laser light

30
Q

Personal monitoring device that contains an aluminum oxide detector

A

Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter

31
Q

Because of the OSL dosimeter’s sensitivity down to as low as 10 μSv for x-ray and gamma ray photons in the energy range 5 keV to 40 MeV, it is an excellent and practical monitoring device for:

A

Pregnant workers

32
Q

An ionization chamber connected to an electrometer is a device that can measure:

A

Small electric currents with high precision and accuracy

33
Q

Advantages of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter:

A

Can be used for up to 1 year
Light weight, durable, and easy to carry

34
Q

Disadvantages of using pocket ionization chambers as personnel dosimeters:

A

They can discharge if they are subjected to mechanical shock
Health care facilities that use this method to record personnel exposure must delegate someone to keep such a record
The dosimeter may give an inaccurate reading because the electric charge tends to escape

35
Q

Occurs when the sensing crystals contained in the thermoluminescent dosimeter are irradiated.

A

Electrons in the crystalline lattice structure absorb Energy and are excited to higher energy levels or bands

36
Q

Component(s) of the Geiger-Muller survey meter that alert the operator to the presence of ionizing radiation:

A

Audio amplifier

Speaker

37
Q

Personnel dosimeter that resembles an ordinary fountain pen externally.

A

Pocket ionization chamber

38
Q

Personnel monitoring devices can be used to provide an immediate exposure readout for a radiation worker:

A

Personnel digital ionization dosimeter

Pocket ionization chamber

39
Q

Filters incorporated into the detector packet of the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter are made of:

A

Aluminum
Tin
Copper

40
Q

Radiation survey instruments must do the following:

A

Detect all common types of ionizing radiation
Be calibrated annually to ensure accurate operation
Interact with ionizing radiation similarly to the way human tissue reacts

41
Q

Advantages of the personnel digital ionization dosimeter:

A

No waiting time for mailing dosimeters
Lightweight and durable
Can be dropped or scratched with little chance of harm to the device

42
Q

Cutie pie

A

Ionization chamber-type survey meter

43
Q

What do optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeters, pocket ionization chambers, and digital ionization dosimeters have in common?

A

The devices are all used for personnel monitoring

44
Q

Three different filters are incorporated into the detector packet of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter:

A

Aluminum
Copper
Tin

45
Q

Disadvantage of the optically stimulated dosimeter:

A

Exposure not determinable on the day of occurrence

46
Q

An instrument that generally has a check source of a weak, long-lived radioisotope located on one side of its external surface to verify its constancy daily:

A

Geiger-Muller survey meter