Flashcards in HEALTH PRIORITIES IN AUSTRALIA Deck (19):
What is epidemiology?
the study of rates and patterns of illness, disease and injury among specific populations and groups
What 3 things is epidemiology used for?
1. To identify patterns relating to morbidity, mortality, life expectancy and infant mortality
2. To prioritise health issues and determine where funding, education and assistance should be directed
3. To monitor how effective current prevention, initiatives and treatment plans are
What is a limitation of epidemiology?
Doesn’t provide info about individuals quality of life, why there are health inequities, the degree and impact of the illness on the sufferer
What are the measures of epidemiology?
L- life expectancy
I- infant mortality
what is morbidity?
the level/incidence of injury, disease or illness among a population
What 3 health areas are decreasing in prevalence?
1. cardiovasular disease
2. road accidents
3. infant mortality
What illnesses are increasing in prevalence?
1. mental illness
2. type 2 diabetes
What 4 aspects of health do Governments look at when prioritising health issues?
4 P's & a C
P- Social Justice principles
P- Priority Population Groups
P- Prevalence of Condition
P- Potential for Prevention and Early Intervention
C- Cost to the Individual and Community
What are the 3 social justice principles? Describe each
1. Equity- The fair allocation of funding and resources (Subsidies for health services for low SES individuals)
2. Diversity- Recognising the diverse population and catering for the different cultures/communities (pamphlets in multiple languages)
3. Supportive environments- Australians have a right to safe and healthy environments (red tick to prevent coronary heart disease, no smoking areas to prevent lung cancer)
Describe the way in which recognising priority population groups enables the Government to prioritise health issues.
Helps to determine who requires the most support/funding. By working out which groups are experiencing inequities in health/ which groups have a higher rate of illness, the government can direct resources/funding to these groups. (eg. Indigenous, low SES, those living in rural and remote areas, the elderly, the disabled)
Describe how recognising the prevelance of conditions can help Governments to prioritise health issues.
Recognisisng the Illnesses/diseases with the highest rates of mortalities/morbidities enabled them to prioritise the issue due to the amount of people affected.
Why is the Potential for Prevention and Early Intervention considered when identifying health priorities?
Conditions which are largely preventable (type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, lung cancer, melanoma) will be prioritised due to the ability to intervene in the early stages of the illness.
Why is the Cost to the Individual and Community considered when identifying health priorities?
When the costs of an illness/disease is high (financial, emotional etc), the Government prioritises these in order to try and improve the health outcomes of these individuals by alleviating these costs.
What are the three priority areas which the government focuses their attention on?
1. Groups experiencing health inequities
2. The high levels of preventable chronic illness, injury and mental illness
3. A growing and ageing population
What are the 6 groups experiencing health inequities. Which 2 are you focusing on?
1. ABORIGINAL & TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PEOPLE
2. SOCIOECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE
3. People in rural and remote areas
4. Overseas-born people
5. the elderly
6. people with disabilities
Describe the nature and extent of Aboriginal and Torres strait islander health inequities
- life expectancy is 10yrs lower
- higher mortality rates of (CVD, diabetes and respiratory disease)
-infant mortality rate is 3 times higher
-higher rates of mental illness
-smoking, use of illicit drugs and poor dietry habits all have higher rates
What are the 3 health determinants?
Describe the sociocultural determinants which result in the health inequities of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander people.
- domestic violence is prevalent in families (impacts on mental health),
- racism (impacts on mental health and their desire to seek Western medical treatment)