What are the 3 energy systems?

1. Alactacid System (ATP/PC)
2. Lactic acid system
3. Aerobic system


What is 'energy' known as?



What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine Triphosphate


What is the first system to be used to create energy?

The alactacid system (ATP/PC system)


What is the source of fuel for the alactacid system

The breakdown of creatine phosphate


Describe the process of the Alactacid system

Explosive movement→ ATP molecule splits, phosphate detaches→ CP is broken down & releases energy→ free phosphate then re-joins ADP to make ATP


Describe the efficiency of ATP production in the alactacid system

It is highly efficient


How much ATP (energy) is produced by the Alactacid system?

less than 1 molecule for every CP breakdown


What is the duration of the Alactacid system?

10-12 seconds


What causes the Alactacid system to fatigue?

When there is no more Creatine phosphate stores meaning ADP cant be transfered to ATP anymore


What are the by products of the Alactacid system?



What is the rate of recovery of the Alactacid system?

within 2-5 minutes creatine phosphate stores replenish


What is the 2nd enegry system to be utilised?

The Lactic acid system


What is the source of fuel for the Lactic acid system?

The breakdown of carbohydrates (glycolysis)


What are the 2 forms of carbohydrates that the Lactic acid system can break down?

1. Blood glucose
2. Glycogen (stored glucose)


Describe the process of the Lactic Acid system

After the 20 seconds of the ATP-PC system, the body requires another ingredient because the PC supplies are exhausted. Therefore, the lactic acid system is activated and glucose is broken down through a process known as anaerobic glycolysis. This releases ATP but also produced pyruvic acid. Due to insufficient oxygen supply, the pyruvic acid cant be broken down and therefore lactic acid is produced, causing muscular fatigue and exhaustion


Describe the efficiency of ATP production in the Lactic Acid system

It makes ATP quickly


How much ATP is produced by the Lactic Acid system

2 ATP molecules for every breakdown of 1 glucose molecule


What is the duration of the Lactic Acid system?

30secs to 2min


What causes fatigue during the Lactic Acid system

the build up of lactic acid in the muscles


What are the by-products of the Lactic Acid system?

Lactic acid


What is the rate of recovery if the Lactic Acid system?

The lactic acid is removed from the body in 30min- 1 hr


What is the 3rd energy system to be utilised?

The aerobic energy system


What does the aerobic energy system utilise as fuel?

1. Carbohydrates (glucose)
2. fats
3. proteins


Describe the process of the aerobic system

After a few minutes of exercise, oxygen is needed in order to further supply the body with energy. This system uses aerobic glycolysis to primarily break down glucose however when there is no more glucose it will break down fats into ATP.


How efficient is the aerobic system

It is extremely efficient, producing more ATP than any other system.


How much ATP is produced by the aerobic system?

- 26 ATP molecules of carbohydrates for each glucose molecule broken down
- 130 ATP molecules for every fatty acid molecule broken down


For how long can the aerobic system work?

unlimited amount of time


What causes the aerobic system to fatigue

it will keep functioning until all fuel sources are exhausted


What are the by-products of the aerobic system?

Carbon dioxide (breathed out) and water (comes out as sweat).


What is the rate of recovery of the aerobic system?

It takes 24-48hrs to replenish glycogen stores


What are the 4 TYPES of aerobic training

1. Continuous
2. Fartlek
3. Aerobic interval
4. Aerobic Circuit


What is 'continuous' training'?

Sustained effort without rest periods. Heart rate is elevated and maintained


What is 'fartlek' training?

Continuous effort with periods of high intensity, followed by a ‘recovery period’ where you continue to jog (no stopping). Done over varying terrain


What is 'aerobic interval' training?

Periods of work (eg. 400m run) with a period of short rest (20secs)


What is 'aerobic circuit' training?

series of exercises that are performed one after the other with little or no rest in between each exercise. (eg. Jumps, hops, runs)


What is the ONE type of anaerobic training?

Anaerobic interval


What is 'anaerobic interval' training

Very high intensity intervals with short rest periods. (100m sprint, jumping up on boxes etc)


What are the 4 types of stretches?

1. static
2. ballistic
3. PNF
4. Dynamic


Describe static stretching

The most common type of stretch where the muscle is slowly taken to the end of its range of motion and held for approximately 10-30 seconds


Describe ballistic stretching

Involves a bouncing action at the end of the range of motion


Describe a PNF stretch

An facilitated and assisted stretch where someone places resistance on your muscles


Describe a dynamic stretch

Movements that replicate/mimic game movements and take the muscle through its full range of motion


What are the categories of strength exercises

1. isotonic
2. isometric
3. isokinetic


what are 'isotonic' strength exercises?

exercises where the muscle shortens and lengthens


what are 'isometric' strength exercises?

exercises where the muscle is engaged but doesn’t change length


what are 'isokinetic' strength exercises?

Exercises which use a specialised machine to keep the load/resistance constant


What are the 5 types of strength training methods?

1. free weights
2. machine weights
3. resistance bands
4. hydraulic resistance
5. stability balls


Describe 'free weight' exercises

The utilisation of weights (dumbbells, barbells, medicine balls, kettle-bells etc.)


Describe 'machine weight' exercises

The utilisation of machines with built in weights (leg press, arm pull down etc)


Describe 'resistance band' exercises

The use of elastic bands to create resistance


Describe 'hydraulic resistance' exercises

The use of a hydraulic cylinder machine which creates an opposing force to be pushed against


Describe 'stability ball' exercises

The use of a ball to develop muscles (especially core) as the ball is an unstable surface


What is the ACRONYM for the 'Principles of Training'? state what each stands for

Today- training thresholds
Sally- specificity
Played- progressive overload
Rugby- reversibility
Very- variety
Well- warm up and cool down


Describe what the principle of training- 'training thresholds' means

Suggests that you want to aim your training at the right intensity and threshold in order to see results


Describe the 3 limits of the training thresholds

1- Lower limit= Aerobic threshold (70% MHR). Training below this results in no fitness benefits
2- Upper limit= Anaerobic threshold (85% MHR). Train above this for anaerobic gains
3- Between these= Aerobic training zone. Train here for aerobic gains


Describe what the principle of training- 'progressive overload ' means

In order for training gains to continue, the stress on the body needs to be gradually increased beyond its current capabilities.


Describe what the principle of training- 'reversibility' means

Training adaptations can be lost once training stops or drops below current capabilities. Therefore, training needs to continue to sustain training gains.


Describe what the principle of training- 'variety' means

In order to prevent boredom and loss of motivation, training sessions should incorporate a range of training types, settings and activities.


Describe what the principle of training- 'warm up and cool down' means

A warm up and cool down will ensure the body is properly prepared for training/recovery. A cool down will remove lactate from the body and stretch the muscles.


Describe what the principle of training- 'specificity' means

Training should be specific to the activity and should resemble the movements in the game/activity


What are the 4 types of motivation?

1. positive
2. negative
3. intrinsic
4. extrinsic


Describe what positive motivation is

the desire to be successful in order to receive happiness, satisfaction and pleasure


Describe what negative motivation is

the desire to be successful with the aim of avoiding unpleasant consequences (getting dropped from the team, getting screamed at etc.)


Describe what internal motivation is

motivation that comes from an internal desire to succeed and perform at the best of ones abilities.


Describe what external motivation is

motivation that comes from an external drive to succeed. It focuses on the product, or what can be gained (materialistic rewards)


What are the 2 main types of anxiety in sport psychology?

Trait & State


What is trait anxiety

a behavioral or personality predisposition to display anxiety and to perceive various situations as dangerous.


What is state anxiety

the feeling of heightened stress and anxiety related to an event or particular situation. It is temporary feeling of anxiety.


What are the 2 sources of stress?

-internal (from inside)
-external (from outside)


what are some examples of internal sources of stress?

-Fear of failure
-High expectations from yourself to do well


what are some examples of external sources of stress?

-The opponents
-Social pressure (from coaches, family, spectators)


What is arousal?

the degree of
energy release and the intensity
of readiness of the performer. It is a physiological sensation rather than a psychological one


What are the 3 levels of arousal?

1. optimal arousal
2. over arousal
3. under arousal


What is optimal arousal?

an arousal level, which will facilitate performance. It is between ‘under arousal’ and ‘over arousal’


What is over arousal?

A level of arousal that is too high for the athlete. This inhibits their performance as they may be too anxious to appropriately prepare and concentrate


What is under arousal?

A level of arousal where the athlete has a low level of motivation, causing them to lack focus and interest.


Describe the Inverted 'U' Hypothesis in terms of arousal

it is used to describe optimal arousal. It shows that as arousal increases, so does performance. If arousal continues past this point (over-arousal), then performance declines.


What are the 4 'psychological strategies to enhance motivation and manage anxiety' ?

1. Concentration/Attention Skills
2. Mental Rehearsal /Visualisation/ Imagery
3. Relaxation techniques
4. Goal setting


Describe what concentration/attention skills are and how they can help an athlete

Strategies to improve ones focus can include practicing with distractions and utilising self-talk. Doing so enables them to concentrate on the task at hand and block out external distractions, improving their performance


Describe what mental rehearsal/ visualisation is and how it assists athletes

it is the technique of picturing the performance or skill before executing it. Helps them to gain confidence (after envisioning success).
Visualising themselves overcoming negative situations allows them to gain a sense of ease and an ability to cope in their game/performance.


Describe what relaxation techniques are and how it helps athletes

Techniques that are able to calm athletes, resulting in decreased anxiety and arousal. This allows them to be in a calmer headspace, allowing for decisions to effectively be made.


Describe how goal setting aids athletes

Setting long and short- term goals provide athletes with a focus and drive. They give athletes a reason to persevere with training over extended periods.


What should an athletes food intake look like pre performance?

-100grams of low GI carbohydrates (ensures adequate muscle and liver glycogen reserves, as it is the main source of energy. Low GI provide slow energy release)
--small amounts of fibre, fat and protein (they take longer to digest and can cause discomfort)


how many hrs before the event should an athlete eat

last meal should be 3-4hrs prior


What should an athlete drink (quantity) pre performance?

3L in the days prior, At least 500mL of water 2-3hrs before


What is the importance of athletes considering their nutrition on their performance?

allows them to ensure that the food and drink they consume will best support maximum performance.


Describe the process of carbohydrate loading.

The consumption of carbs is increased carbs 3-4 days prior in order to maximise the muscles glycogen stores in preparation for a high-intensity endurance activity

Training must also be reduced during these days and small meals of carbs should be eaten frequently


What are the benefits of carbohydrate loading?

it maximises the muscles glycogen stores in preparation for a high-intensity endurance activity


At what rate should an endurance athlete aim to re-hydrate their body during their events

150mL every 15min.


Why is re hydration so important post performance?

to ensure the body is able to repair any damage and to get fluid levels up. Aids the process of getting rid of lactic acid.


What is supplementation?

The process of eating additional nutrients to increase an individual’s intake of a specific nutrient


What are the 5 types of supplements people can take?

1. Vitamins
2. Minerals
3. Protein
4. Caffeine
5. Creatine products


Describe 1 positive and 1 negative of taking vitamin supplements

POSITIVE= Vitamin supplements may be beneficial if the athletes is unable to keep up a good diet (due to travelling or ill health) or if they have pre-existing vitamin deficiencies

NEGATIVE= Taking vitamin supplements is expensive and has little effect on performance, especially if the athlete is consuming a balanced diet with fruits and vegetables


Describe 1 positive and 1 negative of taking mineral supplements

POSITIVE= An athlete may need to take iron or calcium supplements if they are unable to maintain adequate levels of these nutrients in their body (potentially through heavy menstruation, going through menopause, being vegetarian, being lactose intolerant etc.)

NEGATIVE= Mineral supplementation is unnecessary as a balanced and healthy diet is able to provide all necessary minerals.


Describe 1 positive and 1 negative of taking protein supplements

POSITIVE- Supplementation may be required if an individual cannot get adequate amounts of protein through their diet (if they are vegetarian or vegan).

NEGATIVE- A balanced diet should provide more than enough protein for the body so extra protein will be wasted as it cant be utilised (your body has a threshold of how much protein it can utilise)


Describe 1 positive and 1 negative of taking caffeine supplements

POSITIVE- Caffeine supplementation (through drinking coffee, energy drinks, powder or caffeine tablets) can increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue.

NEGATIVE- Too much caffeine can cause hindered performance as it elevates the heart rate, creates over-arousal, causes uncontrolled muscle twitching and can reduce fine motor control


Describe 1 positive and 1 negative of taking creatine supplements

POSITIVE- Use of creatine products can raise creatine levels in muscle by 20–30 per cent, but this happens only if there is a considerable gap between the existing level and the point of saturation.

NEGATIVE-  The body is unable to store excess amounts of creatine so supplementation has little effect on athletes who already consume high amounts of protein (dietary creatine)


What are the 4 categories of recovery strategies

1. Physiological Strategies
2. Neural Strategies
3. Tissue Damage Strategies (cryotherapy)
4. Psychological Strategies


What are the 3 types of physiological strategies

1. Cool down
2. Hydration
3. Stretching


Describe what a cool down is and how it aids recovery

a group of lower intensity exercises performed immediately after exercise to remove lactic acid, decrease muscle soreness, relax the muscles and lower the heart rate


Describe how hydration aids recovery

It replaces lost fluid


Describe how stretching aids recovery

It relaxes he muscles and reduces soreness


What are neural strategies?

Strategies aimed at relaxing the body and nervous system


What are the 2 neural recovery strategies?

1. Hydrotherapy
2. Massage


Explain how hydrotherapy aids recovery

Hydrotherapy involves the use of water to relax, soothe pain and assist rest and recovery. The buoyancy of the water allows muscles to float and therefore less pressure is put onto the joints and muscles


Explain how massage aids recovery

Sport massage can decrease tension and soreness of soft tissue. This promotes flexibility and enhances recovery. Massages increase blood flow to the muscles, which allows for a faster removal of lactic acid


What are the 2 types of cryotherapy strategies (tissue damage strategies) ?

1. ice pack therapy
2. ice bath therapy


What is cryotherapy?

The use of low temperatures in medical therapy


Describe the use of ice-pack therapy in recovery

Placing ice on the affected area slows down the tissue inflammatory process (reduces swelling). This results in quicker healing of damaged soft tissue


Explain how ice bath therapy aids recovery

Immersing the body into a bath of ice causes the blood vessels to contract. This forces blood away from the muscles, taking lactic acid with it. Upon emerging from the bath, the blood vessels enlarge, allowing fresh, oxygen rich blood into the muscles. This enhances recovery.


What are the 2 psychological strategies which can aid recovery?

1- relaxation strategies
2- sleep


Explain how relaxation strategies can aid recovery

There are a variety of relaxation strategies, which can calm the athlete and bring them back to a state of positive wellbeing. These include reading, meditation, listening to music, yoga, writing/drawing


How does sleep aid recovery?

During sleep, the minds internal restoration and recovery occurs. It allows for athletes to feel much clearer and alert so they can better perform and carry out tasks. It also helps to aid their physical recovery


What are the 3 stages of skill acquisition?

1. Cognitive
2. Associative
3. Autonomous


Describe the cognitive stage of skill acquisition

This is the first stage of learning. Through demonstrations, the learner begins to gain an understanding about what the skill looks like and how it should be performed. They may attempt to do the skill.


Describe the associative stage of skill acquisition

During this stage the learner begins to get a feel for the movement and spends lots of time practicing the skill.


Describe the autonomous stage of skill acquisition

This is the most advanced stage. The individual is able to perform the skill automatically (without thinking about it) and consistently achieves the desired result (ball in the hoop, soccer goal scored)


What is the acronym for the 5 characteristics of the learner which can influence their skill acquisition?

C- confidence
H- heredity
A- ability
P- personality
P- prior experience


Explain how the level of confidence the learner has can affect their skill acquisition

If an individual has self- confidence, they are more likely to persist and put effort in as they believe they can do it.


What are the 3 heredity factors that can impact on an individuals skill acquisition

-% of slow and fast twitch muscle fibres
-somatotype (body shape)


explain how the learners heredity characteristics can impact on their skill acquisition

Gender- Males are able to perform to a higher level in power sports due to increased testosterone levels.

Percentage of slow and fast twitch muscle fibres- The percentage of slow to fast twitch muscle fibres will determine the individuals suitability/ ability to succeed in either endurance based sports (slow twitch) or power/speed based sports (fast twitch).

Somatotype (body shape)- The body shape of an individual can make it easier to pick up certain skills and perform/succeed at the skill. (eg. An individual with ^% fat is more likely to succeed in weight lifting than a thin person)


Explain how the ability of the learner can influence their skill acquisition

Some individuals have a ‘natural ability’ at sport and are able to move through the stages of skill acquisition quickly. They have good spatial awareness, coordination and fast reaction time.


Explain how the learners personality can influence their skill acquisition

Individuals who posses certain personality traits are able to pick up and master skills easier than others. Such includes cooperativeness, willingness to listen, determination, enthusiasm, dedication


Explain how a learners previous experience can impact on their skill acquisition

It is often easier to learn a new skill if similar movements have already been successfully acquired. This prior experience has the potential to accelerate the learning process


What are the 4 categories describing the 'nature of the skill'

1. Open/closed
2. self paced/externally paced
3. gross/fine
4. discrete/serial/continuous


Explain the difference between and open and closed skill

Open skills are performed in an environment (physical and opponents) which is constantly changing so actions have to be adapted to the situation (shooting in netball, passing in soccer)

On the other hand, Closed skills are performed in an environment that remains constant and predictable. The skill can be performed exactly as practiced (serving in tennis, softball pitch)


Explain the difference between a self-paced and an externally paced skill

Self-paced skills are performed when the athlete wants to. (bowling a cricket ball, high jump)

Externally-placed skills are initiated by an external source. eg another player, a whistle, a time limit or music. (gym routine, hitting a baseball, goalie in hockey)


Explain the difference between a gross and a fine skill

Gross Skills require the use of large muscle groups. Produces less refined movement. (running, kicking, throwing)

Fine skills require the use of small muscle groups. Produces precise and accurate movement. (spinning a ball when pitching, darts, archery


What are discrete skills? give examples

Skills that have a clearly defined beginning and end. (Golf shot, 100m sprint, Pass in football, Goal in netball)


What are serial skills? give examples

skills which are a combination of a range of discrete skills into one whole movement. They can be broken up into clearly defined stages (a kick in rugby= run up→ delivery → follow through)


What are continuous skills? give examples

skills that have no clear beginning or end. The start and end is determined by the athlete rather than the actual task (running, swimming)


What are the 2 performance elements which needs to be considered when teaching an individual a skill?

1. decision-making
2. strategies and tactical development


How can a coach give the learner an opportunity to practice decision-making in relation to the sport?

To develop a players decision making skills, the coach should allow them to experience a game setting where they can begin to see the inner workings of the game. From this, the individual will begin to learn about the different decisions that need to be made during the game and which actions work and don’t work.


How can a coach give the learner an opportunity to develop their strategic ability in relation to the sport?

To develop a players strategic and tactical ability, the coach should try to reflect match like situations through mini-games (half court), drills (defending, attacking) and full practice games. From this, the player will be able to try out the specific tactics and practice them so on game day their skills are successful.


what are the 2 categories of practice methods?

1- Massed & Distributed
2- Whole & Part


What is the difference between massed & distributed practice methods

Massed practice is a a continuous type of practice with few or no breaks
Distributed practice is a broken up type of practice with shorter practice periods and regular rest breaks


What is the difference between whole and part practice?

Whole practice is when the skill is practiced all the way through (pitching in softball).

Part practice occurs when the skill is broken up into sub-components and each is practiced separately (breaking up the pitch to the run up, stance and throw)


What are the 3 categories of feedback?

1. intrinsic/extrinsic
2. concurrent/delayed
3. knowledge of results/knowledge of performance


What is intrinsic feedback? give an example

internal feedback that is received through the senses of the performer (A netballer can tell themselves their shot was off because they didn’t bend their knees)


What is extrinsic feedback? give an example

feedback received from external sources such as a coach, crowd, video analysis or the result

eg. a netball coach telling the players what they need to improve on


What is concurrent feedback? give an example

This is feedback received during the performance of a skill. It can be intrinsic or extrinsic.
eg. a player giving themselves feedback during the skill execution

a coach calling feedback out whilst an individual is shooting in netball


What is delayed feedback? give an example

feedback that is received after the completion of the skill.
eg. a coach telling a swimmer how to improve on their stroke


explain what 'knowledge of results' feedback is

An extrinsic style of feedback giving information about the outcome of movement.
eg. the score of a game is a form of feedback


explain what 'knowledge of performance' feedback is

Feedback which gives information about how the actual skill was executed/ the quality of the skill


What are the 4 characteristics of skilled performers?

1. Kinaesthetic sense
2. anticipation
3. consistency
4. techniques


Describe a skilled performers kinaesthetic sense.

Skilled performers are able to ‘feel’ the movement as they perform it and ‘feel’ if it is good or not. (a batter being able to feel that their grip isn’t right & correcting it)


Describe a skilled performers sense of 'anticipation'.

Skilled performers are able to ‘read’ and interpret the game. They are able to anticipate where they think the ball will go, which direction the opponent will run or whether there will be rebounds or not.


Describe a skilled performers consistency in skill execution.

Skilled athletes are able to repeatedly demonstrate outstanding and successful skill execution even in high-pressure situations


Describe a skilled performers technique.

Skilled performers have correct technique when executing their skills. Their movements are fluent, smooth and effortless


What are objective measures of performance?

Objective assessments of performance includes times, distances and scores. They are not based on human interpretation or analysis. (Measuring a team based on the score)


What are subjective measures of performance

Subjective assessment relies on personal opinion and judgement. These measurements look at the execution of the skill and how well they were performed. (judging a gym routine)


Describe what validity means in terms of measuring performance

the tests ability to measure what it is meant to (beep test would be a valid test for measuring cardiovascular endurance)


Describe what reliability means in terms of measuring performance

the ability for results to be consistently repeated (A beep test would be considered reliable if the athlete is able to consistently perform the test under the same conditions and receive the same result as before)


What are the 2 types of judging criteria used to measure performance?

1. personal
2. prescribed


What is a personal judging criteria?

when an individual judges a performance based on their own opinions, feelings and emotions


What is a prescribed judging criteria?

when an individual judges a performance based on a set criteria (created by the organisation or governing body). Includes a checklist and scoring criteria


What are the 8 physiological adaptations in response to training?

1. resting heart rate
2. stroke volume
3. cardiac output
4. oxygen uptake
5. lung capacity
6. haemoglobin level
7. muscle hypertrophy
8. fast/ slow twitch muscle fibres


What happens to an individuals resting heart rate as a result of a few weeks of training?

Decreases due to having a more efficient stroke volume (meaning it doesn’t have to pump as often)


What is stroke volume and what happens to an individuals stroke volume as a result of a few weeks of training?

(The amount of blood ejected with each contraction)
Increased because your heart is stronger and is able to contract with more force


What is cardiac output and what happens to an individuals cardiac output as a result of a few weeks of training?

(The volume of blood that is pumped out of the heart per minute)
Increased because your heart muscle is stronger and therefore can push out more every minute


What is oxygen uptake and what happens to an individuals oxygen uptake as a result of a few weeks of training?

(The ability of the working muscles to absorb and use the oxygen being delivered)
Increased due to an increase in haemoglobin levels (what carries oxygen in the blood). Also due to having more capillaries, allowing more oxygen to be absorbed with each breath taken


What happens to an individuals lung capacity as a result of a few weeks of training?

Remains relatively unchanged however several lung adaptions occur:
1. strength and endurance of the lung tissue and surrounding muscles increases (more air can be inhaled)
2. size of lungs increases slightly


What happens to an individuals haemoglobin levels as a result of a few weeks of training?

Level increases due to the bodies response to the drop in oxygen levels during training. In response to such, the body adapts by producing more red blood cells and haemoglobin


What happens to an individuals muscle hypertrophy as a result of a few weeks of training?

Occurs when resistance/strength training is undertaken. This is due to the increase in myofibrils, which cause muscle fibres to increase


What happens to an individuals muscle fiber composition as a result of a few weeks of training?

Slow- twitch muscle fibres are recruited following aerobic training whilst fast twitch muscle fibres are recruited following anaerobic training