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Flashcards in Health Promotion Deck (21)
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define health promotion

the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behaviour towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions.


what is the difference between public health and health promotion

public health places more emphasis on the ends whereas health promotion places more value on the means of achieving them


what are the 3 critiques of health promotion

- structural critique = too much emphasis on the individual
- surveillance critique = involves too much monitoring and regulation of the population
- consumption critique = services and goods only available to privileged


what are the 5 approaches to health promotion

- medical/preventative
- behaviour change
- educational
- empowerment
- social change


give examples of behavioural changes in health promotion

campaigns to get smokers to quit


what is empowerment

allowing individuals to assume more power over their health so involves asking what they want to do to their health


give an example of social change in health promotion

stopping smoking in public places


what is primary prevention

preventing the onset of a disease by reducing the exposure to risk factors


name some approaches to primary prevention

- vaccination
- prevention of contact with risk factors
- taking precautions
- reducing risk factors from lifestyle (e.g. quitting smoking)


what is secondary prevention

detecting and treating a disease at an early stage to prevent further complications


give examples of secondary prevention

- cervical cancer screening
- monitoring and treating blood pressure
- statins to prevent high cholesterol
- atherosclerosis screening


what is tertiary prevention

aims to minimise the effect of the established disease. cant cure the disease so try to prevent its impact


give examples of tertiary prevention

- renal transplant
- steroids for asthma


what are the dilemmas of health promotion

- interfering with peoples lives
- victim blaming the individual
- may be hard/expensive for lifestyle changes
- reinforces negative stereotypes
- unequal distribution of responsibility


what Is the prevention paradox

how interventions that make a difference at population level do not have much effect on the individual


define evaluation

collection of data to assess the effectiveness of a programme in achieving its objectives


why should promotions be evaluated

- assess efficacy and efficiency
- gives accountability
- ensures the interventions do no harm
- for development


what is process evaluation

assesses the process of the programme implementation


what is impact evaluation

assesses the immediate effects of the intervention


what is outcome evaluation

assesses the long term consequences of the intervention


why is the timing for outcome evaluation important

- some interventions take longer to have an effect
- the effect of some interventions wears off quickly