Health Psychology 2301 Midterm #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Health Psychology 2301 Midterm #2 Deck (164)
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1

Health Compromsing Behaviors

  • undermine current or future health
  • usually addicitive
  • can be modified with incentive and help

2

Addiction Definition

  • condition produced by repeated consumption of a natural or synthetic psychoacitve substance
  • person has become physically and psychologically dependent on the substance

3

Definition Physical Dependence

  • body has adjusted to a substance and incorporated it into normal functioning (need it to function normally)

4

Psychological Dependence

  • usually happens before the physical dependence
  • compelled by desire for the substance's effects
  • like it and how it makes you feel

5

Definition "Substance Use Disorder"

  • In DSM
  • Show two characteristics of many:
    • tolerance for the substance
    • failing to fulfill important obligations
    • putting yourself or others at risk of physical injury
    • having substance-related legal problems

6

Definition Tolerance

  • body increasingly adapts to the substance and requires larger doses to get the same effect

7

Definition Withdrawl

  • unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms experienced when discontinuing or reducing using a substance on which you were dependent

8

Use: Pos / Neg

  • consequence increases the behaviour
    • Positive: buzz, elation (cigarettes, booze)
    • Negative: remove tension, stress, anxiety (works quickly so hard to stop)
    • Use it to avoid withdrawl symptoms (DT's, from alcohol or shakes, nausea)

9

Substance-related Cues

  • (classical conditioning)
  • pairings of events, emotional state or cue with a substance can make you crave it
  • the stimuli links to the feeling of using
  • ex: friends who drink or use

10

Incentive Sensitization Theory

(can get dopamine release when see the cue - incentive sensitization theory

11

Expectencies and Abuse

  • form them young (see parents) or older (see vodka and remember getting sick on it)
  • can be negative or positive
  • idea about the outcome of the behavior
  • can influence whether someone will stop using

12

Personality and Substance Use

  • High impulsivity
  • Risk taker
  • Sensation seeking
  • Low self-regulation

13

Genetics and Abuse

  • Identical twins similar addictive behaviour
  • different genes for different substances
  • parental involvement can counteract
  • epigenics: environment can alter the genes involved

14

Smoking

  • Single greatest cause of preventable death

15

Who smokes?

  • Age: begins around 13 (Grade 8)
    • more risk if no post-secondary school
    • fewer begin after 20's
  • Gender:
    • 75% men
  • Sociocultural:
    • ​80% smokers in developing countries (poor health promotion, more stress, no soc. engin)
    • 18% pop in Canada
    • 58% Indigenous pop, higher on reserve
    • assoc with social class -(blue collar more likely to smoke)

16

Why smoke - psychological

  • perceive low risk, high benefit (teens)
  • impulsive or sensation-seeking
  • low self esteem
  • concern body weight
  • want image of cool, rebellious, glamorous

17

Why start - Social Factors

  • Peers: hang with other smokers
  • Family: more likely if parents smoke, reduces belief it will be harmful
  • Stressors: depression increases smoking
  • School: poor regulation/enforcement
  • Culture: standards of "thinness"
  • Media: see pop bands smoking
  • LGBTQ: if not supported can increase smoking

18

Why Keep Smoking

  • Psychological: 
    • Affect Management Model
      • smoke to regulate emotional state
    • Behav. Conditioning: habit (linked with cues)
    • Personal Identity: ties to self image (know you are a smoker - becomes part of you)
  • Social:
    • choose friends who smoke, no support to quit
  • Biological:
    • exposure during pregnancy, heredity, (area in brain (insula)

19

Nicotine

  • Addictive, fast acting drug, reinforcing each hit - after 2 hours half gone after metabolism but half life
  • stimulates the nervous system (reward system)
  • can relax as well
  • makes you alert, helps concentration, arousal, psychomotor performance and can screen out irrelevant stimuli
  • Nicotine regulation model: keep level of it in blood to avoid withdrawl so even if low or light cigs just smoke more as need nicotine

20

Smoking and Cancer

  • lung, mouth, espophagus etc.
  • lung cancer: deadliest form of cancer
  • can lose all cilia lining bronchial tube (can't clear foreign products including carcinogen cig ones)

21

Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease

  • twice the risk of CVD
  • more smoke, higher the risk
  • Nicotine constricts blood vessels, increases HR and BP and cardiac output so wear and tear on heart
  • higher plaque and risk artherosclerosis
  • if smoke more cardiac reactivity to stress
  • lower physical activity usually or other poor habits

22

Lung Disease

  • Emphasyma - lung tissue breaks down so poor airflow and alveoli become damaged and die so not much oxygen into bloodstream
  • COPD - high risk of pneumonia, colds , bad immunity

23

Who Drinks - Age and Culture

  • 15-16 yrs old (63% drink) and 35% binge (8+ drinks)
  • First Nation: more non-drinkers/ if do then heavy
  • can be associated with social life
  • Self concept: "I am a drinker"

24

Alcohol Use Disorder / Problem/ Binge

  • Alcohol use disorder: physical addiction, withdrawl symptoms if  stop, high tolerance, no control
  • Problem drinker: might not have withdrawl effects but social, psychological and medical problems
  • Binge drinking: 5+ drinks at least once in a 30 day period

25

Alcohol Continuum

Psychosocial differences:

  1. perceive fewer negative (sedation) and more positive (stimulation) consequences
  2. experience high stress/trauma and live in environments that encourage drinking
  3. heightened physiological reactions (pleasure)
  4. less likely to use control strategies to not overdrink

26

Biological Reasons

  • Stress dampening
    • buffer stress (will decrease stress response) BUT after a few can become unstable, anxious
  • Family history/genes - develop tolerance, higher reward (positive reinforcement) less plateau,avoid withdrawl symptoms

27

Acute Effects of Alcohol

  • Enters via bloodstream, metabolizes in liver
  • Starts stimulant then becomes depressant (if lots)
  • Lots alcohol:
    • slurred speech/vision
    • interferes with complex though processes
    • poor coordination
    • loss of balance
  • Neural: binds to GABA receptors (quieting effect) and can even stop or slow breathing - alc. poisening, faint

28

Moderate vs Heavy Drinking

  • Heavy: perceive more + consequences, often have greater stress, live where encourage drinking, strong substance-reated cues
  • Moderate: more control strategies

29

Long Term Heavy Drinking Effects

  • Cirrhosis - liver cells die off replaced by scar tissue
    • blocks metabolism of protein, fat and carbs
    • liver cells engorge with fat and protein
    • obstruction of blood flow through liver
  • Impaired immune function
  • Cancer - breast, head/neck/liver/esoph/colorectal
    • acetaldehyde:toxic chem & carcinogen
  • High BP
  • Brain damage - perception, memory, decreased grey matter
  • Heart damage:
    • arrhythmia
    • weak heart so bad blood flow
    • increased cholesterol
    • hypertension

30

FASD

  • Drinking pregnant: raise risk of fetal alcohol syndrome or low birth weight or impaired learning, facial abnormalities, growth deficiencies
  • Also: miscarriages, still births, CNS disorders
  • especially dangerous in early months pregnancy