The part of a sound during which amplitude decreases (offset).
interaural time difference (ITD)
The difference in time between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other.
auditory stream segregation
The perceptual organization of a complex acoustic signal into separate auditory events for which each stream is heard as a separate event.
The lowest-frequency component of a complex periodic sound.
The angle of a sound source on the horizontal plane relative to a point in the center of the head between the ears. Azimuth is measured in degrees, with 0 degrees being straight ahead. The angle increases clockwise toward the right, with 180 degrees being directly behind.
A principle stating that as distance from a source increases, intensity initially decreases much faster than distance increases, such that the decrease in intensity is equal to the increase in distance squared. This general law also applies to optics and other forms of energy.
source segregation or auditory scene analysis
Processing an auditory scene consisting of multiple sound sources into separate sound images.
medial superior olive (MSO)
A relay station in the brain stem where inputs from both ears contribute to detection of the interaural time difference.
lateral superior olive (LSO)
A relay station in the brain stem where inputs from both ears contribute to detection of the interaural level difference.
cone of confusion
A region of positions in space where all sounds produce the same time and level (intensity) differences (ITDs and ILDs).
directional transfer function (DTF)
A measure that describes how the pinna, ear canal, head, and torso change the intensity of sounds with different frequencies that arrive at each ear from different locations in space (azimuth and elevation).
interaural level difference (ILD)
The difference in level (intensity) between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other.
The psychological sensation by which a listener can judge that two sounds with the same loudness and pitch are dissimilar. Timbre quality is conveyed by harmonics and other high frequencies.
The part of a sound during which amplitude increases (onset).