A narrow-diameter, unmyelinated sensory nerve fiber that transmits pain and temperature signals.
Merkel cell neurite complex
A specialized nerve ending associated with slowly adapting (SA I) fibers that have small receptive fields.
Decreasing pain sensation when people think they’re taking an analgesic drug but actually are not.
A sensory nerve fiber that fires when skin temperature increases.
The inner of two major layers of skin, consisting of nutritive and connective tissues, within which lie the mechanoeceptors.
The center of a reference frame used to represent locations relative to the body.
A sensory nerve fiber that fires when skin temperature decreases.
A stereotyped hand movement pattern used to touch objects in order to perceive their properties; each procedure is best for determining one (or more) object properties.
A specialized nerve ending associated with fast-adapting (FA II) fibers that have large receptive fields.
Knowledge of the world that is derived from sensory receptors in skin, muscles, tendons, and joints, usually involving active exploration.
Perception of the position and movement of our limbs in space.
A sensory receptor that responds to mechanical stimulation (pressure, vibration, or movement).
A sensory receptor that signals information about changes in skin temperature.
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
A region of the brain associated with the perceived unpleasantness of a pain sensation.
A jellylike region of interconnecting neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
A region of the brain concerned with cognition and executive control.
dorsal column–medial lemniscal (DCML) pathway
The route from the spinal cord to the brain that carries signals from skin, muscles, tendons, and joints.
An increased or heightened response to a normally painful stimulus.
Spatially mapped in the somatosensory cortex in correspondence to spatial events on the skin.
The route from the spinal cord to the brain that carries most of the information about skin temperature and pain.
A specialized nerve ending associated with slowly adapting (SA II) fibers that have large receptive fields.
two-point touch threshold
The minimum distance at which two stimuli (e.g., two simultaneous touches) are just perceptible as separate.
endogenous spatial attention
A form of top-down (knowledge-driven) control of spatial attention in which attention is voluntarily directed toward the site where the observer anticipates a stimulus will occur.
The outer of two major layers of skin.
Sensation perceived from a physically amputated limb of the body.
Collectively, all sensory signals from the body.
exogenous spatial attention
A form of bottom-up (stimulus-driven) spatial attention in which attention is reflexively (involuntarily) directed toward the site at which a stimulus has abruptly appeared.
A maplike representation of regions of the body in the brain.
A region at the rear of the spinal cord that receives inputs from receptors in the skin.
A specialized nerve ending associated with fast-adapting (FA I) fibers that have small receptive fields.
Referring to perception involving sensory mechanoreceptors in muscles, tendons, and joints.
The ability of neural circuits to undergo changes in function or organization as a result of previous activity.
somatosensory area 1 (S1)
The primary receiving area for touch in the cortex.
A chemical released by the body that blocks the release or uptake of neurotransmitters necessary to transmit pain sensations to the brain.
haptic virtual environment
A synthetic world that may be experienced haptically by operation of an electromechanical device that delivers forces to the hand of the user.
The impression of our bodies in space.
Perception mediated by kinesthetic and vestibular receptors.
frame of reference
The coordinate system used to define locations in space.
somatosensory area 2 (S2)
The secondary receiving area for touch in the cortex.
gate control theory
A description of the pain-transmitting system that incorporates modulating signals from the brain.
An intermediate-sized, myelinated sensory nerve fiber that transmits pain and temperature signals.
A sensory receptor located in a muscle that senses its tension.
Decreasing pain sensation during conscious experience.
The inability to identify objects by touch.