Flashcards in Heart 1 Deck (23)
Truncus arteriosus gives rise to:
Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Bulbus cordis gives rise to:
Smooth parts of left and right ventricles
Primitiv e atrium gives rise to:
Trabeculated part of left and right atria
Primitive ventricle gives rise to:
Trabeculated part of left and right ventricles
Left horn of sinus venosus gives rise to:
Right horn of sinus venosus gives rise to:
Smooth part of right atrium
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein gives rise to:
Superior Vena Cava (SVC)
What week does the heart start to beat spontaneously?
week 4 of development
Defect in left-right dynein can lead to ____________ as seen in _________ syndrome
dextrocardia, Kartagener syndrome
Ventricular septal defect most commonly occurs in which septum?
(not aorticopulmonary septum, muscular ventricular septum)
Patent foramen ovale caused by?
caused by failure of septum primum and septum secundum to fuse after birth And form atrial septum.
(can result in venous thromboemboli)
aka "outflow tract abnormalities"
- Transposition of great vessels
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Persistent truncus arteriosis
Aortic/pulmonary valve derived from?
endocardial cushions of outflow tract
Mitral/tricuspid valve derived from?
fused endocardial cushions of AV canal
How does HbF have higher affinity for O2 than maternal hemoglobin HbA across the placenta?
- Binds 2,3-BPG poorly →Hb stabilized in R state → curve shifts left
- 20% ↑er Bohr effect also (pH ↑s as fetal blood passes placenta) = favors O2 affinity → curve shifts left
- Changes favor O2 transfer from maternal→ fetal circulation
(Left shift favors oxygen loading/binding)
At birth, when the infant takes a breath what happens that results in closure of the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus?
" ↓ resistance in pulmonary vasculature (due to lung expansion)
↑ left atrial pressure (vs the right due to ↑ in pulmonary blood flow)
= closure of foramen ovale
↑ in O2 (from respiration)
↓ in prostaglandins (from placental separation)
= closure of ductus arteriosus"
Which drug works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins? Which fetal structure can it help close?
Indomethacin - helps close patent ductus arteriosus
(Prostaglandins E1 and E2 kEEp PDA open)
Name their fetal-postnatal derivative!
- Allantois → urachus
- ductus arteriosus →
- ductus venosus →
- foramen ovale →
- Notocord →
- Umbilical arteries →
- Umbilical veins →
- AllaNtois → urachus → mediaN unbilical ligament
- ductus arteriosus → ligamentum arteriosum
- ductus venosus → ligamentum venosum
- foramen ovale → fossa ovalis
- Notocord → nucleus pulposus
- UmbiLical arteries → mediaL umbilical ligaments
- Umbilical veins → ligamentum teres hepatis (in falciform ligament)
SA and AV nodes are usually supplied by what artery?
Right coronary artery (RCA)
Posterior descending / interventricular artery (PDA)
- what % supplies right dominant circulation?
- what % supplies left dominant circulation?
- what % supplies co- dominant circulation?
- 85% with PDA arising from RCA (right coronary a)
- 8% with PDA arising from LCX (left circumflex coronary a)
- 7% with PDA arising from both LCX and RCA
coronary artery occlusion most commonly occurs in which artery on the heart?
Left anterior descending artery (LAD)
the most posterior part of the heart is which chamber?
- enlargement of this chamber can cause _______ and __________
dysphagia (due to compression of esophagus)
hoarseness (due to compression of left recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus)