Heart 1: Anatomy of Heart (not development)! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Heart 1: Anatomy of Heart (not development)! Deck (77):
1

Pericardium

Double walled fibrous sac eclousing the hear and roots of the great vessels. Attached to the sternum via sternopericardial ligaments

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Sternopericardial ligaments

Attachments of the pericardium to the sternum

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Fibrous pericardium

Derived from body wall. Fused to central tendom of diaphragm. Inelastic and protects against overfilling.

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Serous pericardium

Shiny and oily. Comprised of parietal and visceral pericardium.

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Parietal Pericardium

Fused to internal surface of the fibrous pericardium. Reflects onto great vessels of heart on the superior aspect of heart

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Visceral pericardium

AKA epicardium. Portion associated with the organ

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Pericardial Cavity

Region between two serous membranes. If fluid (blood) is trapped in this region, heart has no space to beat. Fluid needs to be drained (via a needle)

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Oblique pericardial sinus

Cul-du-sac lying posterior to the heart in the pericardial sac. Bounded by the reflection of the serous pericardium onto the inverior vena cava and right pulmonary veins on the right and the reflection of the serous pericardium onto the left pulmonary veins on the left.

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Transverse Pericardial sinus

anterior to the superior vena cava and posterior to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk. Important for surgery is it separates inflow and outflow so that inflow can be ligated

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Apex

Left ventricle at left 5th intercostal space.

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Base

Left atrium. Sits in back of heart toward vertebral column. Esophagus is between vertebral column and left atrium.

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Surfaces of the heart

Planar. Sternocostal (anterior), diaphragmatic (inferior), and pulmonary (left).

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Sternocostal surface

Anterior surface. Comprised of right ventricle.

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Diaphragmatic surface

Inferior surface. Both ventricles, but primary left.

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Pulmonary surface

Left surface. Occupies cardiac notch

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Borders of heart

Left, superior, right, inferior

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Right border of heart

Comprised entirely of right atrium. Right 3rd costal cartilage to right 6th costal cartilage.

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Inferior border of heart

Comprised primarily of right ventricle, some apex of left ventricle. Right 6th costal cartilage to left 5th intercostal space.

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Left border of heart

Comprised of Left ventricle and left auricle

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Superior border of heart

Comprised of left and right auricles and conus arteriosus. Left 2nd costal cartilage to right 3rd costal cartilage

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Cardiac grooves

Coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus, anterior interventricular groove, posterior interventricular groove

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Coronory sulcus

Aka atrioventriculur sulcus. Separates right atrium from right ventricle. Continues around back before running under left auricle.

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Anterior interventricular groove

Groove between right and left ventricles on anterior aspect of heart. Denotes the deeper intervetricular septum between the two

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Posterior interventricular groove

On back of heart. Separates right and left ventricles on posterior aspect of heart.

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Chambers of heart

Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle

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Right atrium

Receives deoxygenated blood from superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and anterior cardiac veins. Pumps this blood into right ventricle via tricuspid valve.

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Superior vena cava

Vein carrying deoxygenated blood from everything above diaphragm into right atrium

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Inferior vena cava

Vein carrying deoxygenated blood from everything below diaphragm into right atrium

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Sinus venarum

Known as sinus venosus in embroynic heart. The SMOOTH part of the right atrium. Receives the bloodflow from superior and inferior vena cavas. Its smooth nature is due to being derived from a blood vessel.

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Crista terminalis

Prominent ridge in right atrium. Point of origin of pectinate muscles. Transition edge from smooth posterior of sinus venarum to rough anterior or pectinate muscles. "Welding part"

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Pectinate muscles

Present in anterior wall of right atrium along with in left and right auricles, contributing to their rough appearance. Designate "baby heart" derivation: kept during development.

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Interatrial septum of right atrium

Location of fossa ovalis (foramen ovalis in development). Thick, except at fossa ovalis

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Fossa ovalis

"Thumb-print"-shaped remnant of the closure of an opening that was present within the interatrial septum of the fetal heart (Foramen ovale) in right atrium

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Opening to coronary sinus

Coronary sinus drains out of right atrium. Main drain vein of the heart.

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Tricuspid valve

Between right atrium and right ventricle. Prevents backflow between ventricle and atrium during systole. Anchored via chordae tendineae.

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Chordae tendinae

Present in both right and left ventricles. Attached to atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) and provide a connection to the papillary muscles.

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Papillary muscle

Attach to AV valves via chordae tendinae and contract in order to prevent inversion or prolapse of the valves. Contract before systole and maintain tension throughout in order to prevent backflow.

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Trabeculae Carnea

"Rough meat" (so metal). Found in ventricular wall. Papillary muscles come off of here.

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Interventricular septum

Divides right and left ventricles.

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Conus Arteriorus

Found in anterior aspect of heart, from right ventricle. Gives rise to pulmonary trunk. Outflow of heart. Develops from bulbus cordis.

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Pulmonary Semilunar valve

Guard flow out of pulmonary artery. Opens during systole.

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Moderator band

In right ventricle. Conducts impulses from right bundle branch to the right ventricular wall

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Pulmonary veins

Bring oxygenated blood back from lungs. Drain into left atrium

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Left atrium

Smooth, derived from pulmonary vein during embryo. Found in the back. Receives oxygenated blood from lungs via pulmonary veins.

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Left auricle

Rough, contains pectinate

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Left ventricle

Much thicker than right ventricle due to its "harder" job. Responsible for systemic circulation.

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Bicuspid valve

AKA Mitral valve. Prevents backflow between left atrium and ventricle by closing during systole. Opens during diastole.

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Aortic Semilunar valves

Guard outfloow of blood from left ventricle out of aorta. Open during systole, closed during diastole

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Diastole and systole

Diastole: AV valves open, semilunar valves closed. Systole: AV valves closed, semilunar valves open

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Cardiac skeleton

Fibrocatilagenous tissue. Divides atria from ventricles for conductive system and provides attachment for heart valves and myocardium. Includes tendon of conus arteriosus, left fibrous trigone, right fibrous trigone, and membranous portions of the interventricular and interarterial septa

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Tendon of conus arteriosus

Component of cardiac skeleton. Attaches aortic semilunar valves to pulmonary semilunar valves

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Left fibrous trigone

Component of cardiac skeleton. Attaches mitral valve to aortic semilunar valves.

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Right fibrous trigone

Component of cardiac skeleton. Attaches atrioventricular valves to aortic semilunar valves

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Right coronary artery

Sits in the coronary groove, between right ventricle and atrium. Gives off nodal, marginal, and posterior interventricular (usually) branches before anastomosing with circumflex artery from left coronary artery. Provides majority (60%) of supply to SA node (via nodal), and supplies AV node

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Right marginal artery

Branch of right coronary artery. Runs along inferior border of heart. As right coronary is running to the back, it gives off the right marginal artery which runs down the inferior border towards the apex

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Nodal Artery

Branch of right coronary artery. Runs anteriorly and superiorly under the right auricle to the superior vena cava. Supplies the SA node (60% of total supply).

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Posterior interventricular artery

Artery in the back of the heart that runs between left and right ventricles. Its supply varies on dominance of the heart. Right dominant heart supplied by right coronary artery, left dominant heart supplied by circumflex artery

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Left coronary artery

Very short (.25 inches) Gives off circumflex and anterior interventricular branches (LAD). 40% of supply to SA node

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Circumflex artery

Runs in coronary sulcus Anastomoses with right coronary artery. In left dominanry hearts, supplies posterior interventricular artery

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Anterior interventricular artery

Widowmaker! Branch of left coronary artery. AKA Left anterior descending artery

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Coronary sinus

Main drain vein. Lies in coronary sulcus between left atrium and ventricle

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Great cardiac vein

Found in the front of the heart. Runs along with LAD.

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Middle cardiac vein

Found in the back of heart, along with posterior interventricular artery

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Small cardiac vein

Found on side of the heart. Runs along right marginal artery

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Conducting system of heart

Cardiac muscle cells and conducting fibers specialized for iniating and conducting impulses.

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Sinuatrial node (SA Node)

Between SVC and RA. Initiates impulse for contraction 70-80/minute. Supplied 60% by right cardiac artery (nodal), 40% left cardiac artery

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Atrioventricular node

If required to iniate impulses, can do so at 40-60BPM. Located in posteroinferior region of interatrial septum near coronary sinus. Collects impulses from atria and distributes to ventricles.

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Atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His)

If required, can iniate impulse 20-40 BPM. Located within interventricular septum to ventricular myocardium. Divides into right and left bundle branches

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Sympathetic innervation of heart

Sympathetic trunk contributes to cardiac plexus. Leads to increased heart rate (fight of flight)

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Parasympathetic innervation of heart

Vagus (cardiac branches of vagus and recurrent laryngeal) off of cardiac plexus

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Heart Sounds

Caused by turbulence of blood flow as a result of closures of heart valves. Lub and dub!

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"Lub" heart sound

Blood flow hitting the closed valve generated by closure of the AV valves (Tricuspid and Bicuspid [mitral] valves)

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"Dub" sound

Blood flow hitting the closed valve generated by closure of the semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves)

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Listen to Aortic semilunar valve at?

Right 2nd intercostal space

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Listen to pulmonary semilunar valve at?

Left 2nd intercostal space

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Listen to tricuspid valve at?

Lower left body of sternum

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77

Listen to bicuspid (mitral) valve at?

Left 5th intercostal space

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