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Flashcards in Heart Failure Deck (11):
1

Vasodilatory molecules in heart failure:

ANP
BNP
PGE2
PGI2
NO

2

Major cause of heart failure in Africa and Asia

Rheumatic heart disease

3

Important cause of heart failure in African and African-Americans

Hypertension

4

Major cause of heart failure in South America

Chang's disease

5

Mortality rate of symptomatic heart failure in 1 and 5 years:

30-40%
60-70%

6

Stimuli for cardiac remodeling:

1. mechanical stretch
2. neurohormones
3. inflammatory cytokines
4. Peptides and growth factors
5. Reactive oxygen species

7

Changes that occur in the cross-bridges during cardiac remodeling:

1. decreased in the expression of alpha-myosin chain
2. increased expression of beta-myosin chain
3. myocytolysis
4. disruption of the cytoskeletal links between sarcomeres and extracellular matrix

8

Changes that regulate excitation-contraction include:

1. decreased the function of SERCA2A
2. decreased calcium uptake into the SR
3. hyperphosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor
4. Calcium leakage from SR

9

Increased adrenergic activity as a compensatory mechanism results to:

1. sinus tachycardia
2. peripheral vasoconstriction (cool extremities, cyanosis of the lips)

10

Normal jugular venous pressure

= 8cm

11

v waves indicate

Tricuspid regurgitation