Heart Failure / Cardiac Patho Test 2/2 Flashcards Preview

CVPR 312 Cardiac Pathophysiology > Heart Failure / Cardiac Patho Test 2/2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart Failure / Cardiac Patho Test 2/2 Deck (23):
1

Heart failure is the inability of the heart to ______________ and therefore oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues and organs.

Supply adequate blood flow

2

Under perfusion of organs leads to reduced exercise capacity, fatigue, and shortness of breath. It can also lead __________________ (e.g., renal failure) in some patients.

organ dysfunction

3

_____________new cases of heart failure each year worldwide

15 million

4

_____________ new cases of heart failure diagnosed each year in the USA

600,000

5

Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization of patients over

65

6

Once chronic HF is diagnosed: What are the One year mortality figures for the following?

Severe chronic HF =
Moderate chronic HF =
Mild chronic HF =

Severe chronic HF = 50 - 60%
Moderate chronic HF = 15-30%
Mild chronic HF = 10%

7

Intrinsic diseases

CAD, Cardiomyopathies

8

Extrinsic diseases

HTN, volume loads, hormonal disorders

9

The number one cause of heart failure is

CAD

10

Another common cause of heart failure is

MI
which is the final and often fatal culmination of CAD.

11

What percentage of MIs are fatal ?

1/3

12

Causes for acute HF?


CPB
Sepsis
Acute MI
Valve dysfunction
Arrhythmias

13

Causes for chronic HF where the development is slow and the heart has time to adapt?

Hypertrophy, dilation

14

Acute effects of moderate HF?

Reduced CO
Damming of blood in the veins

15

Compensation for acute effects of moderate HF?

-Sympathetic response
-Recovery
-Renal retention

16

Sympathetic nervous receptors such as the Baroreceptors are activated by?

Decreased arterial blood pressure

17

Chemoreceptors are sensitive to what?

Changes on blood chemistry such as CO2, O2, and pH.

18

Low C.O. has a profound effect on ?

Renal function
Fluid retention

19

Fluid retention can be beneficial in increasing pressure gradient causing venous flow of blood toward the heart and what else?

Distends the veins, reducing resistance

20

Left heart failure is the result of what?

Systolic failure = Loss of contractile power

Diastolic failure = loss of ability to relax and fill
Know as restrictive CMP

21

Loss of ability to move venous blood through the pulmonary circuit

Right HF occurs when the left heart has failed

22

Left side heart failure signs and symptoms.

Elevated PCWP
Pulmonary congestion
Restlessness
Confusion
Orthopnea
Tachycardia
Exceptional dyspnea
Fatigue
Cyanosis
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

23

Right side heart failure (cor pulmonale) signs and symptoms.

-Fatigue
-Increased peripheral venous pressure
-Ascites
-Enlarged liver & spleen
-JVD
-Anorexia / GI distress
-Swelling in hands and fingers
-Dependent edema